Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers

Anatomy Physiology MCQs

1) What is the correct order of occurrence for the steps of protein synthesis?

1. mRNA is produced in nucleus.

2. Ribosome moves along mRNA

3. DNA uncoils for transcription.

4. Polypeptide is produced.

5. tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome.


6. mRNA moves to ribosome. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

A) 3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4

B) 2, 4, 6, 1, 3, 5

C) 2, 1, 5, 4, 3, 6

D) 3, 5, 1, 6, 2, 4

E) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2, 6

2) The unit of DNA that specifies a certain amino acid is called a ________, the same unit of mRNA is called a ________, which, during protein synthesis, is matched by the ________ of tRNA.

A) triplet; codon; anticodon

B) nitrogen base; sugar; phosphate

C) codon; anticodon; ribosome

D) gene; triplet; amino acid

E) triplet; co-triplet; gene

3) The duplication of DNA is called ________, the copying of DNA to mRNA is called ________, and the reading of the mRNA by the cell to make a protein is called ________.

A) replication; transcription; translation

B) interphase; replication; active transport

C) replication; translation; transcription

D) mitosis; duplication; protein synthesis

E) reproduction; duplication; initiation

4) What would the complimentary DNA template strand be to produce the mRNA sequence of







5) A gene is a set of specific instructions that

A) produces amino acids for proteins.

B) copies DNA strands for mitosis.

C) controls the process of mitosis.

D) indicates the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule.

E) directs carbohydrate synthesis.

6) The DNA molecule is like a twisted ladder. What molecules form the “sides” of the DNA ladder?

A) alternating molecules of sugar and phosphate groups

B) carbohydrates and lipids

C) repeating molecules of acids and bases

D) amino acids and protein

Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers

E) nitrogen bases and sugar molecules

7) What would the complimentary (matching) mRNA and tRNA molecules be from a DNA molecule that has the following triplets?

coding strand: ATG-CAA

template strand: TAC-GTT






8) Diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane is influenced by all of the following except

A) hydrolysis of ATP.

B) the presence of the membrane channels.

C) the charge on the ion.

D) concentration gradient.

E) lipid solubility.

9) Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through

A) channels formed by integral proteins.

B) peripheral proteins.

C) lipid channels.

D) peripheral carbohydrates.

E) defects in the lipid layer of the membrane.

10) A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called

A) merotonic.

B) hypertonic.

C) isotonic.

D) hypotonic.

E) homotonic.

11) If a red blood cell (RBC) is placed in a 0.5% salt solution, which of the following would occur?

1. Water will move out of the RBC.

2. RBC will hemolyze.

3. RBC will crenate.

4. Water will enter the RBC.

A) 1 and 3 only

B) 2 and 3 only

C) 1 and 2 only

D) 3 and 4 only

E) 2 and 4 only

12) Which of the following best describes osmosis?

A) active transport of water across the cell membrane

B) diffusion of water from a greater to a lesser water concentration

C) movement of water into a solute

D) diffusion of water from a greater to a lesser water concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

E) random movement of water due to kinetic energy

13) Osmotic pressure

A) forces water to move toward the higher solute concentration.

B) forces water to move across a semipermeable membrane.

C) can be opposed by hydrostatic pressure.

D) increases as solute concentration increases.

E) All of the answers are correct.

14) Red blood cell shrinkage is to ________ as red blood cell bursting is to ________.

A) crenation; hemolysis

B) lysis; crenation

C) hypotonic; isotonic

D) isotonic; hypotonic

E) isotonic; hypertonic

15) Identify the mismatched pair.

A) receptor proteins — bind with enzymes

B) channel proteins — provide passageway for ions

C) recognition proteins — identify self

D) carrier proteins — provide transport

E) enzymes — speed up chemical reactions

16) The cytoplasm contains the fluid cytosol and the suspended

A) microvilli.

B) nucleolus.

C) enzymes.

D) organelles.

E) cilia.

17) The process of forming mRNA is called

A) replication.

B) transcription.

C) translation.

D) ribolation.

E) auscultation.

18) The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called

A) replication.

B) transcription.

C) translation.

D) mitosis.

E) auscultation.

19) As each codon arrives at the active site of a ribosome, it attracts another molecule containing the anticodon. This molecule is called


B) mRNA.

C) rRNA.

D) tRNA.


20) The triplet codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the

A) cytoplasm.

B) gene.

C) codon.

D) anticodon.

E) polypeptide itself.

21) Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that

A) cells with large numbers of mitochondria are short-lived.

B) cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand.

C) cells with small numbers of mitochondria have a large ATP supply.

D) cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a low energy demand.

E) some cells are older than others.

22) The following is a list of the steps involved in the process of secretion by the Golgi apparatus. What is the proper order for these steps?

1. Material moves from cisterna to cisterna by means of transfer vesicles.

2. Exocytosis

3. Products from RER are packaged into transport vesicles.

4. Secretory vesicles are formed at the maturing face.

5. Vesicles arrive at the forming face. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

6. Enzymes modify arriving proteins and glycoproteins.

A) 5, 6, 1, 4, 2, 3

B) 2, 3, 5, 6, 1, 4

C) 4, 3, 1, 6, 5, 2

D) 3, 5, 6, 1, 4, 2

E) 1, 3, 6, 4, 2, 5

23) Each of the following is a function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum except

A) storage and release of calcium ions.

B) modification of protein.

C) synthesis of steroid hormones.

D) synthesis of triglycerides.

E) detoxification of drugs.

24) Which of the following statements concerning mitochondria is false?

A) The cristae increase the inner surface area of the organelle.

B) The matrix contains metabolic enzymes involved in ATP synthesis.

C) Respiratory enzymes are attached to the surface of the cristae.

D) The mitochondria require carbon dioxide and produce oxygen in the process of energy transformation.

E) The mitochondria produce most of a cell’s ATP.

25) Which of the following statements about the Golgi apparatus is false?

A) It receives transport vesicles from the RER.

B) It sends transport vesicles to the RER.

C) It produces lysosomes.

D) It supplies new membrane components.

E) It produces secretory vesicles.

26) Peroxisomes

A) contain enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide.

B) absorb and break down fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process.

C) are produced from other peroxisomes.

D) are more abundant in cells with higher metabolic rates.

E) All of the answers are correct.

27) Match the organelle (1-4) with the correct description (5-8).

1. mitochondrion 5. intracellular transport

2. centriole 6. liquid in cell

3. endoplasmic reticulum 7. provides cell energy

4. cytosol 8. aids the formation of the spindle apparatus

A) 1 and 7, 2 and 6, 3 and 8, 4 and 5

B) 1 and 8, 2 and 5, 3 and 6, 4 and 7

C) 1 and 7, 2 and 8, 3 and 5, 4 and 6

D) 1 and 5, 2 and 6, 3 and 7, 4 and 8

E) 1 and 6, 2 and 8, 3 and 5, 4 and 7

28) The endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for

A) drug and toxin neutralization.

B) lipid synthesis.

C) modification of new proteins.

D) shipping molecules to the Golgi apparatus.

E) All of the answers are correct. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

29) Microtubules have which of the following functions?

A) They form structural components of organelles.

B) They move chromosomes during cell division.

C) They provide a mechanism for changing the cell shape.

D) Molecular motors move along them.

E) All of the answers are correct.

30) Which form of endoplasmic reticulum modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins?

A) ribosomal endoplasmic reticulum

B) proteosomes reticulum

C) raised endoplasmic reticulum

D) smooth endoplasmic reticulum

E) rough endoplasmic reticulum

31) Renewal or modification of the cell membrane is a function of the

A) microtubules.

B) mitochondria.

C) rough endoplasmic reticulum.

D) ribosomes.

E) Golgi apparatus.

32) Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the

A) ribosomes.

B) rough ER.

C) smooth ER.

D) Golgi apparatus.

E) mitochondria.

33) Microfilaments

A) anchor the cytoskeleton to membrane proteins.

B) control the consistency of cytoplasm.

C) with myosin, produce cell movement.

D) consist of the protein called actin.

E) All of the answers are correct.

34) The organelles and the watery component of the cell together is called

A) cytosol.

B) protoplasm.

C) extracellular fluid.

D) interstitial fluid.

E) cytoplasm.

35) Identify the role of cholesterol in the plasma membrane.

A) enables ions to pass

B) forms enzymes

C) affects membrane permeability

D) anchors the phospholipids

E) All of the answers are correct.

36) The study of tissues is called

A) cytology.

B) toxicology.

C) micrology.

D) histology.

E) mycology.

37) An epithelial cell can be divided into two functional regions. They are the ________ and the basal surface.

A) apical

B) pinnacle

C) topical

D) crest

E) apogeal

38) ________ are proteins that connect adjacent cells at a gap junction.

A) Bindins

B) Adhesions

C) Connexins

D) Attachons

E) Tieons

39) The epithelium that lines the body cavities is known as

A) perithelium.

B) myothelium.

C) intrathelium.

D) endothelium.

E) mesothelium.

40) Gland cells produce

A) mesenchyme.

B) antibodies.

C) secretions.

D) phagocytes.

E) fibers.

41) Which of the following glands have a compound rather than a simple structure?

A) salivary glands

B) sebaceous glands

C) mucous glands

D) sweat glands

E) gastric glands

42) The process of lactation (milk production) depends on both merocrine and ________ secretion by mammary gland epithelial cells.

A) epicrine

B) eccrine

C) holocrine

D) apocrine

E) endocrine

43) The viscous component of connective tissue is called. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

A) basal layer.

B) ground substance.

C) matrix.

D) lymph.

E) plasma.

44) The combination of fibers and ground substance in supporting connective tissues is known as

A) collagen.

B) cartilage.

C) chondroitin.

D) matrix.

E) scaffold.

45) The watery fluid component of blood is called

A) hemosol.

B) liquid elements.

C) formed elements.

D) hemoplasm.

E) plasma.

46) In areolar connective tissue, ________ cells release histamine.

A) plasma

B) mast

C) mesenchymal

D) gland

E) goblet

47) The three major subdivisions of extracellular fluid found in the body are plasma, interstitial fluid, and

A) synovial fluid.

B) urine.

C) sweat.

D) lymph.

E) serous fluid.

48) Interstitial fluid that enters a lymphatic vessel is called

A) plasma.

B) lymph.

C) blood.

D) humoral fluid.

E) plasmin fluid.

49) The three kinds of formed elements in blood are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and

A) lymphocytes.

B) platelets.

C) phagocytes.

D) plasma cells.

E) mast cells.

50) Lymphocytes can develop into cells that secrete defense proteins against disease. These cells are termed ________, while these proteins are called antibodies.

A) T cells

B) B cells

C) plasma cells

D) immunocytes

E) phagocytes

51) Defense cells in blood are called white blood cells or. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

A) leukocytes.

B) lymphocytes.

C) erythrocytes.

D) thrombocytes.

E) immunocytes.

52) Antiangiogenesis factor is a chemical produced by ________ that blocks the growth of blood vessels.

A) leukocytes

B) lymphocytes

C) chondrocytes

D) erythrocytes

E) mesenchymal cells

53) A herniated disc is an injury of the pads of cartilage between the vertebrae in which the cartilage bulges from normal position. What type of cartilage is affected?

A) mesenchymal

B) fibrous

C) elastic

D) hyaline

E) articular

54) Growth of cartilage by accumulation of matrix around chondrocytes is called ________ growth.

A) appositional

B) intrasitional

C) transitional

D) transformational

E) interstitial

55) In ________ growth, cartilage grows wider or thicker in diameter.

A) appositional

B) intrasitional

C) transitional

D) transformational

E) interstitial

56) Epithelia and connective tissues combine to form ________ that cover and protect other structures and tissues in the body.

A) fasciae

B) aponeuroses

C) organ capsules

D) cutaneous layers

E) body membranes

57) The loose connective tissue component of a mucous membrane is called the

A) lamina densa.

B) basal lamina.

C) areolar lamina.

D) lamina propria.

E) mucina lamina.

58) Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity as a result of liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, or heart failure is known as. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

A) edema.

B) ischemia.

C) inflammation.

D) ascites.

E) infarction.

59) The function of ________ is to propagate electrical signals from one place to another.

A) muscle cells

B) neurons

C) transmitter cells

D) teleocytes

E) neuroglia

60) ________ support, protect, and nourish nerve cells.

A) Nurse cells

B) Neuroglia

C) Neurons

D) Nurturons

E) Nutrient cells

61) The body’s first tissue response to any injury is

A) fever.

B) inflammation.

C) bleeding.

D) shivering.

E) All the above.

62) Accumulations of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis is/are called

A) keloids.

B) scabs.

C) blisters.

D) scars.

E) pus.

63) Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of ________ perspiration.

A) imprudent

B) non-sense

C) impractical

D) vacuous

E) insensible

64) The pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called

A) cadmium.

B) carotene

C) hemoglobin.

D) keratin.

E) melanin.

65) Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum

A) corneum.

B) lucidum.

C) granulosum.

D) spinosum.

E) basale.

66) Myosatellite cells are found in association with ________ muscle.

A) skeletal

B) smooth

C) cardiac

D) involuntary

E) both smooth and cardiac

67) All of the following are true of neurons except that

A) when mature, they lose the ability to divide.

B) they conduct a nervous impulse.

C) they are composed of a cell body and axon.

D) they are a very specialized form of connective tissue.

E) they are separated from one another by synapses.

68) During an inflammatory response to injury, which of the following is the least likely in the region of the injury?

A) increase in basophils

B) increase in histamine

C) increase in blood flow

D) cold, pale skin

E) swelling

69) Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the. Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers.

A) inner wall of a blood vessel.

B) lungs.

C) spleen.

D) superficial fascia between skin and muscle.

E) bony socket of the eye.

70) The framework of connective tissue between the skin and underlying muscles is called the

A) dermis.

B) superficial fascia.

C) deep fascia.

D) subcutaneous layer.

E) subserous fascia.

71) The three categories of connective tissues are

A) connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissue, and supporting connective tissue.

B) epithelial connective tissue, muscle connective tissue, and neural connective tissue.

C) glandular connective tissue, exocrine connective tissue, and endocrine connective tissue.

D) connective tissue proper, cartilage connective tissue, and bone connective tissue.

E) areolar connective tissue, adipose connective tissue, and dense connective tissue.

72) Two classes of macrophages include

A) mesenchymal cells and melanocytes.

B) mast cells and basophils.

C) fixed macrophages and free macrophages.

D) neutrophils and eosinophils.

E) microphages and adipocytes.

73) Tissues that provide strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions are

A) all connective tissues proper.

B) elastic and hyaline cartilage.

C) dense irregular connective tissues.

D) reticular connective tissues.

E) dense regular connective tissues.

74) Loose connective tissue functions in all of the following ways except

A) providing strong connections between muscles and bones.

B) supporting epithelia.

C) anchoring blood vessels and nerves.

D) cushioning and stabilizing.

E) filling spaces between organs.

Anatomy Physiology Questions and answers

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