Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2021), there are about 422 million people worldwide have diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic disease that is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose and can lead to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, nerves, and eyes over time (WHO, 2021). Type 2 diabetes free sample essay. There are four different types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age and in people of every race, shape, and size, and is known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is when the body is not able to produce insulin, which is the hormone needed to get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body (American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2021). Type 2 diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, and is when the body does not use insulin properly, becomes resistant to insulin, or does not make enough insulin (WHO, 2021). Type 2 diabetes usually is diagnosed in adults. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that appears in in patients during pregnancy and then subsides rapidly after delivery (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2019). Gestational diabetes occurs when hormones block the action of the mother’s insulin to her body and causes insulin resistance (ADA, 2021). Lastly, juvenile diabetes, is the term used for type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay.

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Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form of diabetes and accounts for 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2019). This form of diabetes can be controlled with lifestyle changes; with the first treatment for blood glucose control being meal planning, weight loss, and exercising; and the next step being medications that lower blood glucose levels when lifestyle changes are not enough (ADA, 2021). Among the medications used for type 2 diabetes, the oral medication metformin is most widely used and among the injectable drugs, insulin is most widely used (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2019). Metformin monotherapy is the preferred initial pharmacologic agent in treating type 2 diabetes and should be started at diagnosis. It can safely be used with patients with an estimated GFR as low as 30mL/min/1.73m2 (ADA, 2017) Type 2 diabetes free sample essay. Metformin has been approved to be safe, effective, inexpensive, and has beneficial effects on A1C, weight, and cardiovascular mortality (ADA, 2017). Patients should be advised to stop taking the medications if there are cases of nausea, vomiting, or dehydration. Also, long-term use of metformin has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 levels should be monitored (ADA, 2017).

Metformin should be taken with meals to help reduce bowel side effects or upset stomach, which is common especially during the first few weeks of treatment (Mayo Clinic, 2021). The tablet or extended release tablet should always be taken with a full glass of water, and the tablet should never be broken, crushed, or chewed. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay. If a dose is missed, it should be taken right away, unless it is too close to the time of the next dose; doses should not be doubled (Mayo Clinic, 2021). There are regular metformin tablets and a few types of extended-release metformin medications including Fortamet, Glucophage XR, and Glumetza (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Type 2 diabetes free sample essay Each of the types of metformin are started as smaller doses, usually at 500mg one to two times per day, and then increased until blood sugar is controlled, not usually exceeding 2000mg daily (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Although there are no specific diets with taking metformin, a meal plan should be made with a physician in order to help control type 2 diabetes. Diets should include consuming protein from lean meats, beans, soy, and nuts; while the amount of red meat should be limited. It is also important to stay away from sugar-sweetened beverages. Individuals should eat foods that are high in fiber and include carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole-grains (Mayo Clinic, 2021) Type 2 diabetes free sample essay.

Overall, diabetes of all types can lead to complications and increase an individual’s risk of morbidity and mortality. Of the complications includes kidney failure, vision loss, nerve damage, leg amputations, heart attacks, and stroke (WHO, 2021).

 

References

American Diabetes Association. (2017). 8. pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment:Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73-S85. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc18-S008 Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

American Diabetes Association. (2021). Diabetes symptoms, causes, and treatments. American Diabetes Association. https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Metformin (oral route). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/metformin-oral-route/proper-use/drg-20067074

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

World Health Organization. (2021). Diabetes. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/health-topics/diabetes#tab=tab_2

 

By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 5 Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

 

Type 2 diabetes free sample essay response

I enjoyed reading your posting. Learning that global diabetes incidences are approaching half a billion people was mind blowing to me. When you look at US alone, there is approximately 34.1 million adults aged 18 years or older who are diabetic; this translates to about 13.0% of all US adult population (National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020, 2020). That a significant number, but what is even more concerning is the number of individuals being diagnosed with prediabetes; it is estimated 88 million adults in the US aged 18 years or older had prediabetes in 2018 (National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020, 2020). Diabetes is a condition with complex driven largely by non-modifiable genetic influences (Rosenthal and Burchum, 2021). Rising trend in obesity have led to a significant increase in type -2 diabetes (McCance and Huether, 2019). According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020, (2020), approximately 42.4% of US adults were obese in 2017–2018.  Obesity modifiable risk factor that we can target as care providers by education our patients about healthy lifestyles; eating healthy and increasing physical activity with the hope of reducing the risk developing diabetes for the 88 million individuals with prediabetes.

References:

McCance & Huether, (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

National Diabetes Statistics Report 2020: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States. (2020). Medical Benefits37(4), 3–4.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

 

 

response sample 2

great post! I agree with the definitions and comparisons of the four types of diabetes covered in the post: type 1, type 2, gestational and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce insulin and hinders glucose from the bloodstream to the body cells. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce insulin properly, produces inadequate insulin, or is resistant to insulin (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Type 2 diabetes free sample essay. Gestational diabetes occurs among pregnant women when hormones block the action of insulin leading to resistance. On the other hand, juvenile diabetes refers to type 1 diabetes among children and adolescents. The post covers an accurate definition of all these types. The post selects and focuses on type 2 diabetes in contrast to my selection of type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay. The selection was precis since type 1 and type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. The post explains the prevalence of diabetes and its interventions such as lifestyle changes in dieting, weight loss, exercise, or medications to support lifestyle changes (Mayo Clinic, 2021). The most common and widely used medication is metformin, preferred as an initial pharmacologic agent in treating type 2 diabetes that ought to be started at diagnosis. Metformin is a safe, effective, and affordable treatment option for type 2 diabetes. However, it has some side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or dehydration. The post provides guidelines on the usage of the drug based on its different types (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Physicians recommend a meal plan consisting of protein but little red meat. I agree with the insights provided in the post about type 2 diabetes. It is informative and uses factual and specific information to increase knowledge in type 2 diabetes.

References

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Metformin (oral route). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs- supplements/metformin-oral-route/proper-use/drg-20067074

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced  practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

 

sample response 3

Great post. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects more than 400 million people worldwide. In 2040, there will be more than 640 million people with diabetes worldwide  (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016).  Type 2 diabetes free sample essay. The prevalence of expects to double within the next 20 years due to the increase of age, obesity, and the number of ethnic groups of high risk in the population, with significant increases in cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016). Dietary intake and physical exercise are the two main determinants of energy balance, and they are considered a primary base in the treatment of patients with diabetes. Adequate rest is also essential for maintaining energy levels and well-being, and all patients should advise sleeping approximately seven hours per night (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Although there is no consensus on the percentage of carbohydrates that people with diabetes should eat, it shows that the amount and carbohydrates are the main determinants for glycemic control. Counting carbohydrates has proven to be very important in all patients. It allows a better adjustment of the postprandial blood glucose for those who take insulin (Mayo Clinic, 2021.

You provide tremendous details about the use of Metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes. There is a four-step approach I learn through the study that works to treat type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay At the beginning of diagnosis, there must be an initiation of lifestyle change, including the drug metformin. The second phase is to continue lifestyle change, plus Metformin, and add a second drug. A drug such as a sulfonylurea or basal insulin needs to add if the patient does not achieve their expected goal. The third step is to continue with the second step with a three-drug regimen, including Metformin. The fourth step states that if the three-drug combinations that include basal insulin fail to achieve treatment goals after 3 to 6 months, the recommendation is to proceed to a combination injectable regimen inclusive of insulin and possibly a GLP-1 receptor agonist (Rosenthal & Burchum 2021). Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

Patients need to know there are a long-term treatment and evaluation plan. Health care providers will repeat the test A1C levels at least two times a year and any treatment changes (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016).  To achieve reasonable metabolic control in diabetes and keep long-term, a combination of lifestyle and pharmacological treatment changes is necessary (Marín-Peñalver et al., 2016).

References

Marín-Peñalver, J. J., Martín-Timón, I., Sevillano-Collantes, C., & Del Cañizo-Gómez, F. J. (2016, September 15). Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World journal of diabetes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027002/. Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

Mayo Clinic. (2021, January 20). Type 2 diabetes. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351199.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice

            nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) Type 2 diabetes free sample essay

 

 

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