Cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

Cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

Chapter 3 Cells:

  • Explain the two principles of the cell theory:

All living organisms are made up of one or more cells.

All cells arise from other pre-existing cells.

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  • Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure:
  1. A eukaryotic cell
  • has a central control structure called a nucleus which contains the cell’s DNA.
  • eukaryotes
  1. A prokaryotic cell
  • does not have a nucleus; its DNA simply resides in the middle of the cell
  • cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

prokaryotes

Animal cells- chloroplasts, cell wall, vacuole

 

Plant cells- No centriole

 

-Discuss the theories of endosymbiosis and invagination as a means to explain the presence of organelles in eukaryotic cells:

  • Developed to explain the presence of two organelles in eukaryotes, chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals. cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

 

  • Describe the overall structure of the plasma membrane as well as the structure of individual phospholipids:

cell theory - eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

  • Plasma membrane: a plasma membrane, a two-layered membrane that holds the contents of a cell in place and regulates what enters and leaves the cell.

cell theory - eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

  • Describe the following passive transport methods: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis:

Diffusion: (Solutes and solvents)

Simple Diffusion: Molecules pass directly through the plasma membrane without help of another membrane

Facilitated diffusion: Molecules move across with help of another channel or carrier.

Osmosis: Osmosis is the passive diffusion of water across a membrane. cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay.

  • Describe what happens to cells in isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions

cell theory - eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

  • Contrast the various types of active transport methods:

(Active transport, cells use energy to move small molecules into and out of the cell)

-Primary active transport:
uses energy directly from ATP

-Secondary-An indirect method many transporter proteins use for fueling their activities

 

The transport protein simultaneously moves one molecule against its concentration gradient while letting another flow down its concentration gradient. cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

 

No ATP is used directly.

 

At some other point and in some other location, energy from ATP was used to pump one of the types of molecules involved against their concentration gradient.

 

  • Explain the various structures that allow for connection and communication between cells:

-Connections between cells hold them in place and enable them to communicate with each other.

-Gap Junctions- pores surrounded by special proteins that form open channels between two cells

-Tight Junctions-form continuous, water-tight seals around cells and also anchor cells in place

Particularly important in the small intestine where digestion occurs cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

-Desmosomes-are like spot welds or rivets that fasten cells together into strong sheets

Function like Velcro: they hold cells together but are not water-tight

Found in much of the tissue-lining cavities of animal bodies

  • Describe the major landmarks of eukaryotic cells:

The nucleus—the largest and most prominent organelle in most eukaryotic cells. cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

 

The nucleus has two primary functions:

Genetic control center

Storehouse for hereditary information

 

-Chromatin- a mass of long, thin fibers consisting of DNA with some proteins attached

Nucleolus-an area near the center of the nucleus where subunits of the ribosomes are assembled

 

Ribosomes are like little factories.-

 

Explain the structural differences between animal and plant cells:

 

Animal cells- chloroplasts, cell wall, vacuole

 

Plant cells- No centriole

 

Self-Quiz:

 

  1. Used for detoxification.
  2. Garbage disposal of the cells.
  3. Used to maintain turgor pressure.
  4. Converts light into chemical energy.
  5. Converts chemical energy into ATP.

 

Answers:

1=smooth ER

2=lysosome

3=vacuole

4=

5=mitochondria

cell theory – eukaryotic and prokaryotic Cells Essay

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