Hypersensitivity Therapy PICO – immunotherapy and medication Essay



















The human immune system is often tasked with the physical obligation of protecting the body from foreign pathogens that may invade it. The instigation or onset of a hypersensitivity reaction is often as a result of an abnormal reaction of the immune system towards a foreign pathogen or antigen. Hypersensitivity is often used to describe allergies, which arise out of the body detecting the presence of a foreign object that the body is not used to normally. There are various methods of treatment and therapy that have been devised to tackle the diverse types of hypersensitivity reactions or conditions. This paper is a brief essay that compares two therapeutic measures for hypersensitivity and which one works best for research.

Therapeutic Measures for Hypersensitivity.

There many different methods that are employed in the treatment of hypersensitivity or allergic reactions. The mode of treatment that is chosen depends on the extent of the hypersensitivity as well as the causative agent (Legendre et al 2014, p. 145). The two therapeutic measures that can be adopted for both hypersensitivity and research purposes are immunotherapy and use of medication (Karnoub et al 2015, p. 2). The latter is the most common method that is used to treat hypersensitivity. However, the medicine that is administered to the patient depends on the nature of the allergic reaction they have (Jones et al 2015, p. 198). Both immunotherapy and medications can be evaluated as a treatment regimen for allergies based on the PICO approach.

PICO deals with the patient or population receiving the treatment, the intervention used, control and the resultant outcome. In this case, PICO can be used to ascertain if these two therapeutic methods are effective for the patient, the nature of their intervention, the control measures employed and whether there are any side effects from their usage (Medical Literature, 2015). The medication approach is often used for the control of hypersensitivity reactions which are mostly allergens. Antihistamines and decongestants are the most common medicines prescribed for patients with allergic symptoms (Stone et al 2014, p. 12). Decongestants are known to control allergies such as asthma or stuffy noses. Likewise, antihistamines and corticosteroids are also prescribed when a patient has a hypersensitivity inflammation. On the other hand, immunotherapy is a different form of hypersensitivity treatment that makes use of small doses of the allergen to which the patient is allergic to presently (Berroa et al 2014, p. 276).

Immunotherapy is mainly used to treat allergies such as pollen, dust, bee venom or even flower and coffee pheromones. The use of minimal or small doses of the allergen is meant to trigger the immune system into becoming less sensitive to this foreign substance (Legendre et al 2014, p. 145).   Consequently, the immunity of the person responds by hindering the release of antibodies, which means that allergic reactions with then be avoided. Immunotherapy is very effective in treating conditions such as rhinitis, anaphylaxis and other frequently occurring allergies. Both medication and immunotherapy are effective because they are able to minimize the production of antibodies within the immune system (Legendre et al 2014, p. 145).

Additionally, both of these therapeutic interventions are known to have very minimal side effects or adverse drug reactions that can at times be acute. Instead, they usually restore the health of the patient with little damage to the physiological functioning of the body (Medical Literature, 2015). The success of these forms of treatment lies in first establishing the factors that strongly trigger the hypersensitivity reactions. Blood tests as well as skin tests are known to give the main allergens that cause one to be hypersensitive. Hence, after this is diagnosed, it then becomes easier to decide whether to use medication or immunotherapy interventions.           Conclusively, both medication and immunotherapy are effective therapeutic measures for treating hypersensitivity and research into both modes of treatment has revealed their numerous advantages to the affected patient.





Berroa, F, Lafuente, A, Javaloyes, G, Ferrer, M, Moncada, R, Goikoetxea, M, Urbain, C, Sanz, M, & Gastaminza, G 2014, ‘The usefulness of plasma histamine and different tryptase cut-off points in the diagnosis of peranaesthetic hypersensitivity reactions’, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 44, 2, pp. 270-277, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 September 2015

Jones, J, Richter, L, Alonto, A, & Leedahl, D 2015, ‘Desensitization To Ceftaroline In a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions’, American Journal Of Health-System Pharmacy, 72, 3, pp. 198-202, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 September 2015

Karnoub, M, Zairi, F, Aboukais, R, & Assaker, R 2015, ‘Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction: An Increasingly Recognized Complication of Metal-on-Metal Total Disc Replacement’, Case Reports In Orthopedics, 2015, pp. 1-3, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 September 2015

Legendre, D, Muzny, C, Marshall, G, & Swiatlo, E 2014, ‘Antibiotic Hypersensitivity Reactions and Approaches to Desensitization’,Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58, 8, pp. 140-148, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 September 2015

Medical Literature. (2015). PICO formula. Retrieved on 14 Septermber 2015 from http://learntech.physiol.ox.ac.uk/cochrane_tutorial/cochlibd0e84.php

Stone, S, Phillips, E, Wiese, M, Heddle, R, & Brown, S 2014, ‘Immediate-type hypersensitivity drug reactions’, British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology, 78, 1, pp. 1-13, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 September 2015

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