Issues in Health Care Reform Essay

Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.

NURS 8100 Week 1: The Health Care System, Part 1

NURS 8100 Week 1 Discussion: Health Care Reform

Discussion: Health Care Reform

After much public and political debate, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama. The PPACA is one of many health care reform efforts that have sought to correct key features of the U.S. health care system such as financing, service delivery, and care coordination. This week, you will examine the passage of PPACA as a milestone along the historical continuum of health care reform in the United States Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.

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To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and media presentation, reflecting on the evolution of health care in the United States and the public’s response to health care reform efforts historically and currently.
  • Consider: What principal features of the U.S. health care system helped or hindered the enactment of federal health reform in March 2010? What challenges were encountered? Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.
  • How do these conditions and/or challenges reflect characteristics of the policy process and the political environment?

By Day 3 of Discussion: Health Care Reform

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Analyze at least one important feature of the U.S. health care system that is of particular interest to you. Explain why you think this feature is significant in terms of health policy and reform.
  • Describe one or more conditions or challenges specifically related to the passing of the PPACA. Explain how this exemplifies the nature of the policy-making process, and evaluate how it could relate to the question of why health reform in the United States has been so difficult.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.

By Day 6 of Discussion: Health Care Reform

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

Note: Please see the Syllabus and Discussion Rubric for formal Discussion question posting and response evaluation criteria.

Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you learned and/or any insights you gained as a result of the comments made by your colleagues.

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Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and any additional sources. Discussion: Health Care Reform

NURS 8100 Week 1: The Health Care System, Part 1

The evolution of health care in the United States has been a roller-coaster story of good intentions that were often buffeted by economic and social change, compromised by special interests, and beset by passionate differences of opinion. The primary goals of health care reform have been fairly consistent: to increase access, lower costs, and improve quality. Many efforts to bring about change, however, have not resulted in policy. Why has this been such a challenge? What barriers have prevented reform efforts from being successful? Exactly how to fix the weaknesses of the current health care system continues to be an issue of public and political debate, and one which continues to be played out in the policy arena. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.

This week, you will examine the history and evolution of health care and consider how health care financing has been central in shaping the current system. You also will examine provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA)—a groundbreaking attempt at reforming the U.S. health care system by the enactment of new policy.

Looking AheadIn Week 2, you will begin an assignment that requires you to interview a policy maker Issues in Health Care Reform Essay. Due to the time-sensitive nature of getting on the desired individual’s schedule, you may wish to review this assignment now to begin thinking about who you might like to contact.

Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze principal features of the U.S. health care system
  • Evaluate the policy process in relation to challenges for health care reform
  • Access online learning resources for professional growth and development

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2016). Understanding health policy: A clinical approach (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

  • Chapter 1, “Introduction: The Paradox of Excess and Deprivation”This chapter introduces the concept of “excess and deprivation”—p eople receiving either too little or too much health care, which contributes to the weakness of the health care system.
  • Chapter 2, “Paying for Health Care”This chapter discusses the evolution of health care financing, including out-of–pocket payments, individual private insurance, employment-based insurance, and government-financed insurance.
  • Chapter 3, “Access to Health Care”This chapter focuses on financial and nonfinancial barriers to health care and concludes with influences to one’s health status unrelated to health care.
  • Chapter 4,“Paying Health Care Providers”This chapter provides information on how physicians and hospitals are paid. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.

HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Understanding the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/index.html

Posted by U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, this article provides an introduction to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA).

HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Understanding the Affordable Care Act: About the law. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/law/index.html

Also posted by U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, this article focuses on specific provisions of the law and outlines how it will increase access to affordable health coverage.

In Week 1 of this course, you are required to subscribe to one of the health information services listed below. In preparation, review these different sites:

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2010). AHRQ PSNet Patient Safety Network. Retrieved from http://psnet.ahrq.gov/

ModernHealthcare.com. (n.d.). Registration is free: The news is invaluable. Retrieved from https://home.modernhealthcare.com/clickshare/addAccountFree.do

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2011). Publications and research. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/?topicid=1318

The Commonwealth Fund. (2010). The Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2011). New & noteworthy. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/

Required Media

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011). Healthcare policy and advocacy: The policy process. Baltimore: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 11 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Kominski and Dr. Zelman discuss the policy process and provide an overview of the influence of policy on health care practices. Dr. Zelman also discusses the challenges of passing new policy and relates this to health care reform efforts Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.

 

 

Optional Resources

Hammer, D., Phillips, B., & Schmidt, T. L. (2010). The intended and unintended consequences of health care reform. Healthcare Financial Management64(10), 50–55.

Rettenmaier, A. J., & Saving, T. R. (2011, January 5). Reforming Medicare: The Affordable Care Act versus the Rivlin/Ryan proposal. National Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.ncpathinktank.org/pub/ba736

Stephens, J. H., & Ledlow, G. R. (2010). Real health care reform: focus on primary care access. Hospital Topics88(4), 98–106.

NURS 8100 Week 1 Assignment: Staying Current: Online Resources

Technology is providing increasingly rich and credible resources for staying abreast of the latest trends and issues in health care. Many recognized organizations provide regularly disseminated updates via their websites, and offer this information free to subscribers Issues in Health Care Reform Essay. As you proceed through the DNP program, you will find that receiving these updates will support your professional growth as a scholar practitioner.

To prepare:

Explore the following resources found inthis week’s Learning Resources:

  • AHRQ Patient Safety Network
  • Modern Healthcare Alerts
  • RWJ Nursing News Digest
  • The Commonwealth Fund
  • The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

To complete:

  • Select one service and subscribe to receive e-mail alerts or updates.
  • Copy and paste your successful subscription notification into a Word document.

By Day 7

Submit the Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment link.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Excellent Good Fair Poor
RESPONSIVENESS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONDiscussion post minimum requirements:

*The original posting must be completed by Wednesday, Day 3, at 11:59pm MST. Two response postings to two different peer original posts, on two different days, are required by Saturday, Day 6, at 11:59pm MST. Faculty member inquiries require responses, which are not included in the minimum number of posts. Your Discussion Board postings should be written in standard edited English and follow APA style for format and grammar as closely as possible given the constraints of the online platform. Be sure to support the postings with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources as well as resources available through the Walden University online databases. Refer to the Essential Guide to APA Style for Walden Students to ensure your in-text citations and reference list are correct.

(26.67%) – 8 (26.67%)
Discussion postings and responses exceed the requirements of the Discussion instructions. They: Respond to the question being asked or the prompt provided; – Go beyond what is required in some meaningful way (e.g., the post contributes a new dimension, unearths something unanticipated); -Are substantive, reflective, with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings and current credible evidence. – Demonstrate significant ability to generalize and extend thinking and evaluate theories or concepts within the topic or context of the discussion. -Demonstrate that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning -Resources as well as additional resources and has read, viewed, or considered a sampling of colleagues’ postings; -Exceed the minimum requirements for discussion posts*.
(23.33%) – 7 (23.33%)
Discussion postings and responses meet the requirements of the Discussion instructions. They: -Respond to the question being asked or the prompt provided; -Are substantive, reflective, with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings and current credible evidence.re -Demonstrate ability to generalize and extend thinking and evaluate theories or concepts within the topic or context of the discussion. -Demonstrate that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources and has read, viewed, or considered a sampling of colleagues’ postings -Meet the minimum requirements for discussion posts*.
Issues in Health Care Reform Essay
(20%) – 6 (20%)
Discussion postings and responses are minimally responsive to the requirements of the Discussion instructions. They: – do not clearly address the objectives of the discussion or the question or prompt; and/or -May (lack) lack in depth, reflection, analysis, or synthesis but rely more on anecdotal than scholarly evidence; and/or -Do not adequately demonstrate that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning -Resources and/or a sampling of colleagues’ postings; and/or has posted by the due date at least in part. – Lack ability to generalize and extend thinking and evaluate theories or concepts within the topic or context of the discussion. -Do not meet the minimum requirements for discussion posts*.
(0%) – 5 (16.67%)
Discussion postings and responses are unresponsive to the requirements of the Discussion instructions. They: – do not clearly address the objectives of the discussion or the question or prompt; and/or – Lack in substance, reflection, analysis, or synthesis but rely more on anecdotal than scholarly evidence. – Lack ability to generalize and extend thinking and evaluate theories or concepts within the topic or context of the discussion. -Do not demonstrate that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources and/or a sampling of colleagues’ postings; and/or does not meet the minimum requirements for discussion posts*.
CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
(26.67%) – 8 (26.67%)
Discussion postings and responses: -demonstrate in-depth understanding and application of concepts and issues presented in the course (e.g., insightful interpretations including analysis, synthesis and/or evaluation of topic; – are well supported by pertinent research/evidence from a variety of and multiple peer- reviewed books and journals, where appropriate; -Demonstrate significant mastery and thoughtful/accurate application of content, applicable skills or strategies presented in the course.
(23.33%) – 7 (23.33%)
Discussion postings and responses: -demonstrate understanding and application of the concepts and issues presented in the course, presented with some understanding and application of concepts and issues presented in the course (e.g., insightful interpretations including analysis, synthesis and/or evaluation of topic; -are supported by research/evidence from peer-reviewed books and journals, where appropriate; and · demonstrate some mastery and application of content, applicable skills, or strategies presented in the course.
(20%) – 6 (20%)
Discussion postings and responses: – demonstrate minimal understanding of concepts and issues presented in the course, and, although generally accurate, display some omissions and/or errors; –lack support by research/evidence and/or the research/evidence is inappropriate or marginal in quality; and/or lack of analysis, synthesis or evaluation of topic – demonstrate minimal content, skills or strategies presented in the course. ——-Contain numerous errors when using the skills or strategies presented in the course
(0%) – 5 (16.67%)
Discussion postings and responses demonstrate: -A lack of understanding of the concepts and issues presented in the course; and/or are inaccurate, contain many omissions and/or errors; and/or are not supported by research/evidence; and/or lack of analysis, synthesis or evaluation of topic -Many critical errors when discussing content, applicable skills or strategies presented in the course. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay
CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISCUSSION
(26.67%) – 8 (26.67%)
Discussion postings and responses significantly contribute to the quality of the discussion/interaction and thinking and learning by: -providing Rich and relevant examples; discerning and thought-provoking ideas; and stimulating thoughts and probes; – -demonstrating original thinking, new perspectives, and extensive synthesis of ideas supported by the literature.
(23.33%) – 7 (23.33%)
Discussion postings and responses contribute to the quality of the discussion/interaction and thinking and learning by -providing relevant examples; thought-provoking ideas – Demonstrating synthesis of ideas supported by the literature
Issues in Health Care Reform Essay
(20%) – 6 (20%)
Discussion postings and responses minimally contribute to the quality of discussion/interaction and thinking and learning by: – providing few and/or irrelevant examples; and/or – providing few if any thought- provoking ideas; and/or -. Information that is restated from the literature with no/little demonstration of critical thinking or synthesis of ideas.
(0%) – 5 (16.67%)
Discussion postings and responses do not contribute to the quality of interaction/discussion and thinking and learning as they do not: -Provide examples (or examples are irrelevant); and/or -Include interesting thoughts or ideas; and/or – Demonstrate of critical thinking or synthesis of ideas
QUALITY OF WRITING
(20%) – 6 (20%)
Discussion postings and responses exceed doctoral -level writing expectations. They: · Use grammar and syntax that is clear, concise, and appropriate to doctoral level writing; · Make few if any errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; · Use original language and refrain from directly quoting original source materials; -provide correct APA · Are positive, courteous, and respectful when offering suggestions, constructive feedback, or opposing viewpoints.
(16.67%) – 5 (16.67%)
Discussion postings and responses meet doctoral -level writing expectations. They: ·Use grammar and syntax that is clear and appropriate to doctoral level writing; ; · Make a few errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; · paraphrase but refrain from directly quoting original source materials; Provide correct APA format · Are courteous and respectful when offering suggestions, constructive feedback, or opposing viewpoints;.
(13.33%) – 4 (13.33%)
Discussion postings and responses are minimally below doctoral-level writing expectations. They: · Make more than occasional errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; · Directly quote from original source materials and/or paraphrase rather than use original language; lack correct APA format; and/or · Are less than courteous and respectful when offering suggestions, feedback, or opposing viewpoints.
(0%) – 3 (10%)
Discussion postings and responses are well below doctoral -level writing expectations. They: · Use grammar and syntax that is that is unclear · Make many errors in spelling, grammar, and syntax; and –use incorrect APA format · Are discourteous and disrespectful when offering suggestions, feedback, or opposing viewpoints. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay

NURS 8100 Week 2 Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

According to the AACN (2006), “Political activism and commitment to policy development are central elements of professional nursing practice” (p. 13). Throughout this course, you will hone the skills and competencies required for this type of involvement in policy.

Research is an essential step in the process of acquiring the skills and competencies, and interviews are one form of research that can serve as a valuable source of information. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay. As such, this Assignment (which you will start this week, and submit by the end of Week 9) provides an opportunity for you to identify a health reform issue of interest and discuss the issue with a state or national politician (or their aide).

To prepare for Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview):

  • Identify a state or national politician (state representative or legislator, senator, congressman, governor, etc.), or aide, whom you would like to interview regarding current issues in health care reform.
  • As soon as possible, contact the individual’s office to request a meeting. Keep in mind that it may be difficult to get on their calendar, so plan accordingly. You may conduct the interview in person or by phone.
  • In advance of the interview, ask yourself:
    • What health care policy issue is important to me personally?
    • What issue do I want to bring to this person’s attention?
  • With this in mind, develop your list of questions for the interview around your selected health policy issue. In addition, you may wish to include questions related to health care reform:
    • What are your constituents most concerned about regarding health care reform? Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.
    • What are the trade-offs associated with recent health care reform policy?

By Day 7 of Week 9 of Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

To complete for Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview):

  • Write a 3- to 4-page paper providing a summary and analysis of the interview and the health care reform issues you discussed.

Your written assignments must follow APA guidelines. Be sure to support your work with specific citations from appropriate Learning Resources and additional scholarly sources as appropriate. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association to ensure that your in-text citations and reference list are correct. Due by Day 7 of Week 9. Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

NURS 8100 Week 2: The Health Care System, Part 2

As addressed in Week 1, many different policies and reform efforts have influenced health care delivery over the past century. Consider for a moment the health care reform efforts during the 1960s and the implementation of Medicare and Medicaid. How did these reform initiatives become policy? What challenges do these programs face today? What problems did they solve, and what new problems have arisen?

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) continue to have a strong influence on the health care system and health care policy through financial incentives and reimbursement policies. For example, to improve continuity of care, Medicare is offering financial incentives to health care providers that become accountable care organizations.

This week, you will have an opportunity for an authentic experience as you bring a health care issue of concern to the attention of your state or national politician. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay. You will also consider the unintended consequences that may arise as a result of reform policy, such as the individual mandate.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze key health care reform legislation to determine positive results and potential unintended consequences
  • Assess reform-related issues for health care

Photo Credit: [alexaldo]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images


Learning Resources for Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings for Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2016). Understanding health policy: A clinical approach (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

  • Chapter 5, “How Health Care is Organized – I: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Care”
  • Chapter 6, “How Health Care is Organized – II: Health Delivery Systems”

McClellan, M. (2010). Accountable care organizations in the era of health care reform. American Health & Drug Benefits, 3(4), 242–244. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

The PPACA of 2010 encourages the formation of accountable care organizations (ACOs) to improve the quality and efficiency of health care delivery. An ACO is a group of health care providers who coordinate care for their Medicare patients and share the financial incentives of health care improvement gains.

Moore, K. D., & Coddington, D. C. (2010). Accountable care: The journey begins. Health Care Financial Management, 64(8), 57–63.

Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides information on the importance of health care provider organizations taking steps to become accountable care organizations (ACOs) and provides examples of systems that have historically functioned in this capacity. The authors also provide steps for developing and transitioning to an ACO structure.

Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health.aspx

This report discusses how nurses can and should play a fundamental role in meeting the challenges of increased demand for health care brought about by the implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. In addition, it stresses the need for nurses to be partners with other health professionals and assume leadership roles in redesigning health care in the United States.

Institute of Medicine. (2010). Report brief: The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Retrieved from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Future%20of%20Nursing%202010%20Recommendations.pdf

This report brief highlights the four key recommendations from the Robert Wood Johnson and Institute of Medicine The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health report. The recommendations focus on nursing practice, education and training, partnerships with other healthcare professionals, and workforce planning and policymaking. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay

HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Understanding the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/index.html

This website introduces the Affordable Care Act and presents the timeline for implementation of the various provisions of the Act.

HealthCare.gov. (n.d.). Understanding the Affordable Care Act: About the law. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights/law/index.html

Read the full Affordable Care Act law at this website. An overview of the law is also provided along with an outline of how the Affordable Care Act helps reduce health insurance costs.

Required Media for Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011). Healthcare policy and advocacy: Reforming health care delivery: Accountable care organizations. Baltimore: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Kathleen White explains the structure of accountable care organizations (ACO) and discusses the benefits and challenges of becoming an ACO.

 

Optional Resources for Assignment 1: Issues in Health Care Reform (Interview)

APRN Joint Dialogue Group Report. (2008). Consensus model for APRN regulation: Licensure, accreditation, certification & education. Retrieved from https://www.aacnnursing.org/Education-Resources/APRN-Education/APRN-Consensus-Model

Fisher, E. S., & Shortell, S. M. (2010). Accountable care organizations: Accountable for what, to whom, and how. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 304(15), 1715–1716.

Fisher, E. S., Staiger, D. O., Bynum, J. W., & Gottlieb, D. J. (2007). Creating accountable care organizations: The extended hospital medical staff. JHealth Affairs, 26, w44-w57. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.26.1.w44–57

McClellan, M., McKethan, A. N., Lewis, J. L., Roski, J., & Fisher, E. S. (2010). A national strategy to put accountable care into practice. Health Affairs, 29(5), 982–990. Issues in Health Care Reform Essay

Kaiser Health News. (2011). Accountable care organization proposed regulations: Resources. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Stories/2011/March/31/ACO-Documents-In-The-News.aspx Issues in Health Care Reform Essay

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