N512 Advanced Pathophysiology Module Two: Cardiovascular Disease Across the Life Span

Module 2 Overview


In this module students will review the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart and analyze the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of selected cardiovascular disorders, including arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, and coronary artery disease.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, you will be able to:

  • Review normal physiology of the cardiovascular system
  • Explain pathophysiological alterations in the cardiac cycle.
  • Analyze the pathogenesis of alterations in heart function.
  • Summarize the major clinical manifestations and complications of alteration in heart functions

Reading & Resources

Read Chapters 10 In Hammer, G. & McPhee, S. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education / Medical

Optional readings:

Lindsell, C. J., Anatharaman, V., Diercks, D., et al. (2006). The internet tracking registry of acute coronary syndrome: A multicenter registry of patients with suspicion of acute coronary syndromes reported using the standardized reporting guidelines for emergency department chest pain studies. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48(6), 666-677.

Ringstrom, E., & Freedman, J. (2006). Approach to undifferentiated chest pain in the emergency department: A review of recent medical literature and published practice guidelines. Mt. Sinai Journal of Medicine, 73(2), 499-505.

Learning Activities

  • Discussion: Participate in Discussion 2.

Discussion 2

Jackie Johnson, a 35 y.o. African-American, married female, advertising executive, presents to the emergency department with complaints of chest pain. The pain is described as 8 on a scale ranging from 1 to 10, retrosternal, and sharp in nature. It radiates to the back, is worse with taking a deep breath, and is improved by leaning forward. On review of systems, she has noted a “flulike illness” over the last several days, including fever, rhinorrhea, and cough. She has no medical history and is taking no medications. She denies tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. On physical examination, she appears in moderate distress from pain, with a blood pressure of 125/85 mm Hg, heart rate 105 bpm, respiratory rate 18/min, and oxygen saturation of 98% on room air. She is currently afebrile. Her head and neck examination is notable for clear mucus in the nasal passages and a mildly erythematous oropharynx. The neck is supple, with shotty anterior cervical lymphadenopathy. The chest is clear to auscultation. Jugular veins are not distended. Cardiac examination is tachycardic with a three-component high-pitched squeaking sound. Abdominal and extremity examinations are normal.

In this discussion:

  1. Provide and discuss this patient’s likely diagnosis with your colleagues. Why do you support this “likely” diagnosis?
  2. Discuss your differential diagnoses clinical reasoning. Why do you support this list of potential differential diagnoses?
  3. Provide and discuss what the most common causes of this disease are, and which is most likely in this patient?
  4. Identify the pathophysiologic mechanism for her chest pain.
  5. Develop a plan of care post-discharge based upon your recommendations living arrangements and social supports.

Support your discussion with citations from the external literature and your textbook.

Remember to respond to at least two of your peers. Please refer to the Course Syllabus for Participation Guidelines & Grading Criteria.

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