N521-Advanced Pharmacology Module Two: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Module 2 Overview

Introduction

All medications and remedies are made of chemical substances.  As such, those substances can have interactions and responses of various types to other drugs or to the patient’s chemical makeup, too.  This week we will explore those interactions and intended responses as we look at Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. We will also explore the use of complementary and alternative therapies and possible desirable and undesirable effects when these therapies are intertwined with prescribed medications.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, you will be able to:

  • Discuss the mechanism of action of each major drug class and natural product at the molecular/cellular and organ/organ system level.
  • Identify the fundamental principles of pharmacology related to prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs and natural products.
  • Evaluate common side effects and interactions associated with the major classes of drugs.
  • Utilized evidence-based practice to prevent drug interactions and adverse events

Reading & Resources

Read Chapter 2, 3, 6, 9 & 59  InArcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Learning Activities

  • Discussion: Participate in Discussion 2.
  • Test: Complete Progress Test 1. Click on the Progress Test 1 link for more details.

Discussion 2

A.C. is a 60-year-old Caucasian woman with newly diagnosed peptic ulcer disease, generalized anxiety disorder, and iron deficiency anemia. She also has a long history of asthma and depression. She is a strong believer of herbal medicine. She takes St. John’s wort for her depression, iron pills for her anemia, and alprazolam (Xanax) as needed for her anxiety. During her asthma exacerbation, she is instructed to take prednisone for at least 5 days. She also takes esomeprazole (Nexium) for her peptic ulcer disease. Three months later, she experienced severe fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, and swelling/soreness in the tongue. Her asthma is well controlled with the occasional use of albuterol (Proventil) inhaler. During her physical exam, her physician suspected that she had bacterial vaginosis and gave her a prescription for a 1-week course of metronidazole (Flagyl). She drinks at least two to three cans of beer per day.

Review the above case and post a discussion that evaluates the potential for interactions that may increase drug availability.  What is the cause of increased drug availability?  Evaluate for interactions that will decrease drug availability.  What is the cause of decreased drug availability?  What recommendations may be made concerning the co-administration of these medications?

Please see the Course Syllabus for Discussion Participation Requirements and Grading Criteria.

 

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