NRS-434VN Topic 2: Health Assessment of the Toddler, Preschool, and School-Aged Child

Topic 2 DQ 1

Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.

 

Child abuse can occur in different forms, such as physical or emotional. Whenever such abuse occurs, it leaves the child emotionally disturbed. It takes the intervention of a professional for the child to get back to their normal self. School-age children are prone to the two types of child abuse. The abuse could range from mistreatment to sexual abuse. Regardless of the type of abuse the child is subjected to, it can have a great emotional impact on their lives.

Among the emotional signs of an abused child is social withdrawal, delayed emotional development, and low self-esteem. The child could also avoid a situation that used to be fun for them. For instance, if the child is no longer excited about going to school or hanging out with friends, it could indicate abuse. The physical warning signs that the nurse can identify is the poor growth rate and injury marks on the child’s body. If the child is not willing to talk about their emotions with the nurse, it could indicate abuse (Hoft & Haddad, 2017).

One of the cultural practices that might seem to be a form of child abuse is circumcision without the use of anesthesia. The practice is carried out to show the child’s strength and perseverance. Failure to cry during the process indicates how strong the child would be in the future. Crying is a sign of weakness. If the nurse notices any signs of abuse, they should notify a physician as soon as possible. The examination should also be carried out in the absence of the suspected victim. Such would allow the child to express their feelings without the fear of being victimized. Once abuse has been proven, the child is given the necessary help.

 Reference

Hoft, M., & Haddad, L. (2017). Screening children for abuse and neglect: a review of the literature. Journal of forensic nursing13(1), 26-34.

 

 

Objectives:

  1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in conducting a child health assessment.
  2. Apply Erikson’s stages of child development to health assessment.
  3. Examine factors that increase the vulnerability of a child.
  4. Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult.

 

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Topic 2 DQ 1

 

Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.

Topic 2 DQ 2

 

Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult. In addition to describing the similar/different aspects of the physical assessment, explain how the nurse would offer instruction during the assessment, how communication would be adapted to offer explanations, and what strategies the nurse would use to encourage engagement.

“Health assessment of young and middle-aged adults extends beyond physical examination. The nurse uses a holistic outlook with consideration for mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of the individuals” (Falkner, 2018). An adult would receive a head to toe assessment and may receive a more focused cardiac or respiratory assessment. The adult would be asked about medical history and current medications being taken. With an adult you could speak more plainly than you can with a child. You may need to give examples or comparisons to a child. You should still instruct the patient as to what you are doing during the assessment. You could also give the adult patient handouts to learn more about their assessment.

A child assessment would be done differently than an adult. The child more than likely would be more apprehensive than an adult. Before the assessment started the nurse should interact with the child’s parent that way the child would be more apt to interact with the nurse and this would also begin a trusting rapport. The nurse should get eye level with the child and explain in terms the child can understand while the nurse is explaining what is being done. The nurse would start with less invasive assessments first. The parent may hold the child during the assessment. The nurse may have to ask the parent instead of the child about some of the problems the child may be having. Another thing the nurse would do is let the child see the equipment before using it. Before I take a temporal temperature on a child, I run the thermometer over my forehead first. This lets the child know what I’m about to do to them and that it doesn’t hurt. I tell the child what I’m doing every step of the way. I reassure them and speak kindly to them.

In both assessments, I would inform the patient as to what part of the assessment would be performed next. I would ask questions (if possible) to both of the patients as well. I would be compassionate and attentive while the patient spoke and these strategies would encourage engagement.

References

Falkner, A. (2018). Adult Health Assessment. In Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/4

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