NURS 6501 Adaptive Response and tonsillitis mind map

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Discussion: Factors That Influence Disease Sample Essay

Adaptive Response

This paper will be discussing the adaptive responses that lead to diagnoses in three patient scenarios. The first scenario will be discussing Jennifer’s tonsillitis. The second scenario will be on Jack’s allergic contact dermatitis. Finally, the third will be based on Martha’s clinical depression.

Scenario One

Jennifer is a 2-year-old toddler with no significant previous history. The child has a temperature of 102.8F on admit, and her mother states it has been between 101-103.2F for the last three days. Physical examination reveals a visibly ill patient, warm and dry to the touch, slightly reddened tympanic membranes, and healthy BMI. The patient states her throat hurts when she swallows. She also has tender lymph nodes, and 4+ swollen tonsils with diffuse exudates visible on inspection. The patient does not display the signature barking for croup, and physical examination does not show edema of the epiglottis. Tonsillitis is the final diagnosis based on presentations and differential diagnosis.

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Huether and McCance state that tonsillitis is an infection and inflammation of the tonsils. The authors also report that it is usually caused by beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) (2017, p. 717). Adaptive responses to tonsillitis include a painful throat secondary to swollen tonsils, tender lymph nodes in the vicinity of infection, high temperatures, halitosis, and possible stiff neck. It generally affects children who are 2-15 years of age (Mayo Clinic, 2015). NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Discussion: Factors That Influence Disease Sample Essay

Scenario Two

Jack is an adult male in his mid-20s with clinical symptoms of red and irritated hands. The patient reports his hands feeling hot, but not painful. He admits to not wearing protective gloves at his job as a maintenance engineer while using cleaning chemicals. The patient reports no known allergies and no other significant history besides recurrent ear infections when he was much younger. A diagnosis if allergic contact dermatitis is reached due to clinical presentation.

Huether and McCance state that allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell mediated allergic response in reaction to irritants on the skin. The authors report that the irritant is bound to a carrier protein, leading to the formation of a sensitizing agent, which is then presented to T-cells by the Langerhans cells. Adaptive responses to this condition include erythema, edema, itching, and lesions concentrated in the area of exposure. Risk factors include a genetic susceptibility of several genes that code for filaggrin (an epidermal protein) (2017, p. 1060).

Scenario Three

Martha’s clinical information is very limited. Her only medical history is stated as controlled hypertension. Her main symptoms reported are her “racing heartbeat,” loss of appetite, and trouble sleeping (mentioned twice). The limited information as well as the psychosocial situation of becoming her mother’s caretaker lead to the diagnosis of depression. Adaptive responses to depression include those experienced by Martha (loss of appetite and sleep) as well as feelings of sadness, anger, anxiety, and emptiness. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, patients may also experience back pain, headaches, or decreased acuity in thoughts. Depression can affect anyone of any age (2016). NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Discussion: Factors That Influence Disease Sample Essay

In summary, the adaptive mechanisms were discussed concerning the three clinical scenarios. This included information on tonsillitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and depression.

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References

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis,

MO: Mosby.

Mayo Clinic. (2015). Tonsillitis. Retrieved from

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tonsillitis/basics/symptoms/con-20023538

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Depression. Retrieved from

https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/mental-illness/depression.htm NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Discussion: Factors That Influence Disease Sample Essay

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