NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments

NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments

NURS 6501 Week 2 Assignment: Adaptive Response

As an advanced practice nurse, you will examine patients presenting with a variety of disorders. You must, therefore, understand how the body normally functions so that you can identify when it is reacting to changes. Often, when changes occur in body systems, the body reacts with compensatory mechanisms. These compensatory mechanisms, such as adaptive responses, might be signs and symptoms of alterations or underlying disorders. In the clinical setting, you use these responses, along with other patient factors, to lead you to a diagnosis. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Consider the following scenarios:

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Scenario 1:

Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in her usual state of good health until 3 days ago when she started to get fussy, would not eat her breakfast, and would not sit still for her favorite television cartoon. Since then she has had a fever off and on, anywhere between 101oF and today’s high of 103.2oF. Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when the fever went up to 103.2oF today, she felt that she should come in for evaluation. A physical examination reveals a height and weight appropriate 2-year-old female who appears acutely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened on the periphery, but otherwise normal in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates. Anterior cervical nodes are readily palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. The child indicates that her throat hurts “a lot” and it is painful to swallow. Vital signs reveal a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Scenario 2:

Jack is a 27-year-old male who presents with redness and irritation of his hands. He reports that he has never had a problem like this before, but about 2 weeks ago he noticed that both his hands seemed to be really red and flaky. He denies any discomfort, stating that sometimes they feel “a little bit hot,” but otherwise they feel fine. He does not understand why they are so red. His wife told him that he might have an allergy and he should get some steroid cream. Jack has no known allergies and no significant medical history except for recurrent ear infections as a child. He denies any traumatic injury or known exposure to irritants. He is a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building and admits that he often works with abrasive solvents and chemicals. Normally he wears protective gloves, but lately they seem to be in short supply so sometimes he does not use them. He has exposed his hands to some of these cleaning fluids, but says that it never hurt and he always washed his hands when he was finished. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Scenario 3:

Martha is a 65-year-old woman who recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which has been controlled for years with hydrochlorothiazide. She reports that lately she is having a lot of trouble sleeping, she occasionally feels like she has a “racing heartbeat,” and she is losing her appetite. She emphasizes that she is not hungry like she used to be. The only significant change that has occurred lately in her life is that her 87-year-old mother moved into her home a few years ago. Mom had always been healthy, but she fell down a flight of stairs and broke her hip. Her recovery was a difficult one, as she has lost a lot of mobility and independence and needs to rely on her daughter for assistance with activities of daily living. Martha says it is not the retirement she dreamed about, but she is an only child and is happy to care for her mother. Mom wakes up early in the morning, likes to bathe every day, and has always eaten 5 small meals daily. Martha has to put a lot of time into caring for her mother, so it is almost a “blessing” that Martha is sleeping and eating less. She is worried about her own health though and wants to know why, at her age, she suddenly needs less sleep. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

To Prepare for NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments

  • Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 6 in the Huether and McCance text.
  • Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios, including their associated alterations. Consider the adaptive responses to the alterations.
  • Review the examples of “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in this week’s Learning Resources. Then select one of the disorders you identified from the scenarios. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.
  • Review the Application Assignment Rubric found under Course Information
  • NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper excluding the title page, reference page and Mind Map that addresses the following:

  • For each of the three scenarios explain the pathophysiology, associated alterations and the patients’ adaptive responses to the alterations caused by the disease processes. You are required to discuss all three scenarios within the paper component of this assignment.
  • Construct one mind map on a selected disorder presented in one of the scenarios. Your Mind Map must include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments Course Readings

A. Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

  •  Chapter 5, “Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing”. This chapter examines how the body responds to injury and infection by exploring the first, second, and third lines of defense. It also covers wound healing and alterations of the wound healing process.
  • Chapter 6, “Adaptive Immunity”. This chapter examines the third line of defense, adaptive immunity. It also covers the roles of antigens and immunogens, the humoral immune response, cell-mediated immunity, and the production of B and T lymphocytes in the immune response.
  • Chapter 7, “Infection and Defects in Mechanism of Defense”. This chapter covers the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of disorders resulting from infection, deficiencies in immunity, and hypersensitivity. It also examines the pathophysiology of an important immune disorder—HIV/AIDS.
  • NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments
  • Chapter 8, “Stress and Disease”. This chapter evaluates the impact of stress on various body systems and the immune system. It also examines coping mechanisms and disorders related to stress.
  • Chapter 9, “Biology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment of Cancer”. This chapter explores the developmental process of cancer and factors that impact the onset of cancer at the cellular level. It also describes various treatment options.
  • Chapter 10, “Cancer Epidemiology”. This chapter reviews genetic, environmental, behavioral, and diet-related risk factors for cancer. It also examines types of cancers that result from risk factors.
  • Chapter 11, “Cancer in Children”. This chapter focuses on the presentation and prognosis of childhood cancers. It examines the impact of genetic and environmental factors on these cancers.
  • Chapter 36, “Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System”, This chapter covers the structure and function of bones, joints, and skeletal muscle. It also explores effects of aging on the musculoskeletal system.
  • Chapter 37, “Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function”. This chapter examines the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of bone, joints, and skeletal muscle disorders. Additionally, it explores musculoskeletal tumors, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Chapter 38, “Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children”. This chapter includes musculoskeletal disorders that affect children, such as congenital defects, bone infection, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, muscular dystrophy, musculoskeletal tumors, and nonaccidental trauma.
  • Chapter 39, “Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument”. This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of skin. It then covers effects of aging on skin, as well as disorders of the skin, hair, and nails.
  • Chapter 40, “Alterations of Integument in Children”. This chapter covers alterations of the integument that affect children. These include acne vulgaris, dermatitis, infections of the skin, insect bites and parasites, vascular disorders, and other skin disorders.

B. McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2012). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

  • Chapter 3, “Disorders of the Immune System”. This chapter explores the anatomy and physiology of the immune system. It also explores the pathophysiology of various immune disorders such as primary immunodeficiency diseases and AIDS.
  • Chapter 8, “Diseases of the Skin”. This chapter begins with an overview of the anatomy and physiology of skin. It also explores the pathophysiology of various types of skin lesions and inflammatory skin diseases.
  • Chapter 24, “Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease”. This chapter explores the pathogenesis of inflammation and its role in rheumatic diseases. It also examines the clinical presentation, etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of rheumatic diseases such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments Media

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments Optional Resources

NURS 6501 Week 4 Assignment: Application: Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Advanced practice nurses often treat patients with vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). While the symptoms of both disorders are noticeable, these symptoms are sometimes mistaken for signs of other conditions, making the disorders difficult to diagnose. Nurses must examine all symptoms and rule out other potential disorders before diagnosing and prescribing treatment for patients. In this Assignment, you explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of CVI and DVT.

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To prepare:

  • · Review the section “Diseases of the Veins” (pp. 585–587) in Chapter 23 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Consider the similarities and differences between these disorders.
  • · Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • · Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic venous insufficiency and one for venous thrombosis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis.

To complete:

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Compare the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Describe how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis.
  • Explain how the patient factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Construct two mind maps—one for chronic venous insufficiency and one for deep venous thrombosis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments Course resources

a. Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

  • Chapter 22, “Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems” . This chapter examines the circulatory system, heart, systemic circulation, and lymphatic system to establish a foundation for normal cardiovascular function. It focuses on the structure and function of various parts of the circulatory system to illustrate normal blood flow.
  • Chapter 23, “Alterations of Cardiovascular Function”. This chapter presents the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. It focuses on diseases of the veins and arteries, disorders of the heart wall, heart disease, and shock.
  • Chapter 24, “Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children”. This chapter examines cardiovascular disorders that affect children. It distinguishes congenital heart disease from acquired cardiovascular disorders.

b. McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

  • Chapter 11, “Cardiovascular Disorders: Vascular Disease”. This chapter begins with an overview of the vascular component of the cardiovascular system and how the cardiovascular system is normally regulated. It then describes three common vascular disorders: atherosclerosis, hypertension, and shock.
    Media
  •  Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012a). Alterations of cardiovascular functions PPT lecture. Baltimore, MD: Author. This media presentation outlines common alterations of cardiovascular function, including disorders of the veins and arteries.

NURS 6501 Week 4 Optional Resources

  • American Heart Association. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/
  • Million Hearts. (2012). Retrieved from http://millionhearts.hhs.gov/index.html
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/

NURS 6501 Week 6 Assignment: Asthma

Complications of asthma can be sudden. Consider the case of Bradley Wilson, a young boy who had several medical conditions. He appeared in good health when he went to school, returned home, and ate dinner. However, when he later went outside to play, he came back inside wheezing. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead (Briscoe, 2012). In another case, 10-year-old Dynasty Reese, who had mild asthma, woke up in the middle of the night and ran to her grandfather’s bedroom to tell him she couldn’t breathe. By the time paramedics arrived, she had passed out and was pronounced dead at the hospital (Glissman, 2012). These situations continue to outline the importance of recognizing symptoms of asthma and providing immediate treatment, as well as distinguishing minor symptoms from serious, life-threatening symptoms. Since these symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, as an advanced practice nurse, you must be able to help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate treatment options. For this reason, you need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Prepare

  • Review “Asthma” in Chapter 26 of the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Consider how these disorders are similar and different.
  • Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of both chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma and acute asthma exacerbation. Be sure to explain the changes in the arterial blood gas patterns during an exacerbation.
  • Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of both disorders. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Construct two mind maps—one for chronic asthma and one for acute asthma exacerbation. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.
By Day 6

This Assignment is due.

Note: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments Reference

Briscoe, K. (2012, May 12). Thetford: mother of Bradley Wilson, who died of asthma attack, told there was nothing she could have done. East Anglian Daily Times. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eadt.co.uk/news/thetford_mother_of_bradley_wilson_who_died_of_asthma_attack_told_there_was_nothing_she_could_have_done_1_1375128

Glissman, B. (2012, May 21). Girl’s death puts focus on asthma’s broader grip. Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved from http://www.omaha.com/article/20120521/LIVEWELL01/305219975

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

NURS 6501 Week 8 Assignment 1 Gastrointestinal Tract-Disorders of Motility

Assignment 1: Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Jamie is a 3-month-old female who presents with her mother for evaluation of “throwing up.” Mom reports that Jamie has been throwing up pretty much all the time since she was born. Jamie does not seem to be sick. In fact, she drinks her formula vigorously and often acts hungry. Jamie has normal soft brown bowel movements every day and, overall, seems like a happy and contented baby. She smiles readily and does not cry often. Other than the fact that she often throws up after drinking a bottle, she seems to be a very healthy, happy infant. A more precise history suggests that Jamie does not exactly throw up—she does not heave or act unwell—but rather it just seems that almost every time she drinks a bottle she regurgitates a milky substance. Mom thought that she might be allergic to her formula and switched her to a hypoallergenic formula. It didn’t appear to help at all, and now Mom is very concerned.

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Cases like these are not uncommon. The mother was concerned and thinking her daughter may have an allergy; she changed to a different formula. However, sometimes babies have immature GI tracts that can lead to physiology reflux as they adapt to normal life outside the uterus. Parents often do not consider this possibility, prompting them to change formulas rather than seeking medical care. As in the case study above, GI alterations can often be difficult to identify because many cause similar symptoms. This same issue also arises with adults—adults may present with symptoms that have various potential causes. When evaluating patients, it is important for the advanced practice nurse to know the types of questions he or she needs to ask to obtain the appropriate information for diagnosis. For this reason, you must have an understanding of common GI disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s media presentation on the gastrointestinal system.
  • Review Chapter 33 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
  • Review Chapter 35 in the Huether and McCance text. Consider the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis. Think about how these disorders are similar and different.
  • Select a patient factor different from the one you selected in this week’s Discussion: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Reflect on how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on this factor.
  • Review the “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for gastritis. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of gastritis.

To Complete

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production. Explain the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with GERD, PUD, and gastritis disorders.
  • Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. Describe how you would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the factor you selected.
  • Construct a mind map for gastritis. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment you explained in your paper.

By Day 7

This Assignment is due.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK8Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK8Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 8 Assignment 1 Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 8 Assignment 1 draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:

Week 8 Assignment 1

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments

Assignment 2: The Pathophysiology of Disorders

During the last 5 weeks, you have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions. For this reason, when disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this Assignment, you examine alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

To Prepare

  • From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:
    • Alzheimer’s disease
    • Asthma in children
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • Congestive heart failure
    • Hepatic disease (liver disease)
    • Hypertension
    • Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
    • Seizures
    • Sepsis

Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder. Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.

To Complete

Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:

  • Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.
  • Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
  • NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments
  • Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

By Day 7 of Week 10

The Assignment is due.

SAMPLE Assignment 1: Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

2 Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production The gastric parietal cells are found in the walls of the stomach and form the site where gastric acid is produced.3 The cells have the secretory canaliculus which releases gastric acid into the gastric lumen. 4 Gastric acid production occurs as a response to the hormonal, neurocrine and paracrine messengers which stimulate the series of reactions to produce the acid. Acid production takes place in three phase’s namely cephalic, gastric phase and intestinal phase. 3 Chemo transmitters are associated with the stimulation, production, and regulation of gastric acid. The chemo-transmitters are typically released into the gastric mucosa through different pathways that simulate the stimulatory and inhibitory mechanism (Borrelli, 2011).

The production, defense and healing mechanism against the harmful effects of gastric acid are regulated by an autocrine, neutral and paracrine control pathways. Gastric acid may be associated with digestive disorders such as GERD, PUD, and gastritis although it is equally important in the digestion of calcium, proteins and vitamin B12 as well as absorption of iron into the body.

Gastrointestinal reflux disorder (GERD) is the digestive condition that occurs due to acid reflux on the walls of the stomach. The excessive production of gastric acid leads to the overflow of the acid through the upper esophageal sphincter and causes a burning sensation on the esophageal walls. Peptic ulcer disease is more similar to GERD and involves acid action on the walls of the stomach leading to sores or wounds. Gastritis, on the other hand, is an inflammation of the intestinal walls due to the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin (Huether & McCance, 2012). NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Patient Factors Affecting Digestive Acid Disorders: 5 Behavior The common risk factors for developing gastrointestinal acid disorders are the lifestyle behaviors such as drug use, poor diet, and poor feeding habits. A person who depends more on junk foods is more likely to accumulate more fat in their bodies which triggers conditions such as gastritis. 5 Foods such as peppermint, chocolate, coffee, and alcohol are the common causes of esophageal reflux. Use of anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin are triggers of gastritis. Smoking, drinking and substance abuse are all predisposing factors for peptic ulcers and gastritis (Camilleri, 2012).

Diagnosis and Treatment There are common symptoms of the digestive disorders that differentiate them and make them easy to diagnose. For instance, reflux disease comes with a burning sensation in the throat followed by a bitter taste in the mouth. The irritating feeling usually increases when one assumes a lying position. Patients with GERD are usually enrolled on a dietary change to control the recurrence. GERD, Gastritis, and PUD are diagnosed by an analysis of the patient’s dietary practices, the frequency of abdominal pains and stress levels (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012c). 5 The treatment of the conditions takes various forms such as lifestyle change, dietary changes and behavior change such as reduction in the levels of alcohol consumption, and avoiding the use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients may also be advised to avoid the consumption of spicy foods (National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2012). NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Conclusion The discussion shows that gastric acid disorders mainly affects individuals who practice poor feeding habits, as well as alcohol consumers, and substance abusers. The best way to effectively manage gastric acid disorders is to practice a healthy diet and engage in a healthy lifestyle.

2 The Mind Map for Gastritis (Laureate Education, Inc., 2012c)-People who consume excess alcohol -Use of NSAIDS -Gastric bleeding -Vomiting and epigastric pain –

Epidemiology Clinical presentation

Epidemiology

2 Pathophysiology Diagnosis Gastritis

-Inflammation of gastric mucosa -injury to the inner stomach lining –

-Endoscopy -Blood test -Fecal occult test

Treatment

2 -Use of antacids to neutralize the gastric contents -Use of histamine 2 blockers to regulate acid production

5 References Borrelli, F. (2011). 2 Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor and Gastric Acid Secretion. Dig Dis Sci, 52(11), 3102-3103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9507-4 Camilleri, M. (2012). Pharmacology of the new treatments for lower gastrointestinal motility disorders and irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 91(1), 44-59.

Huether, S. 2 E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). 2 Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

2 Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012c). 2 The gastrointestinal system. Baltimore, MD: Author. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

5 National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. (2012). 5 Retrieved fromhttp://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/index.aspx

NURS 6501 Week 10 Assignment

Application: The Pathophysiology of Disorders

During the last 5 weeks, you have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions. For this reason, when disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments, you examine alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems.

To prepare:

From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:

  • o   Alzheimer’s disease

o   Asthma in children

o   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

o   Congestive heart failure

o   Hepatic disease (liver disease)

o   Hypertension

o   Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

o   Seizures

o   Sepsis

·        Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.

·        Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.

·        Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.

To complete:

Develop a 5- to 10-slide PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:

·        Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.

·        Explain how (ALL 5 factors)genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

·        Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

NURS 6501 Week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Assignments: Walden University M.S. in Nursing

Formative Evaluation Criteria for Applications and Formal Papers

Categories and Criteria

Points

QUALITY OF WORK SUBMITTED – 35 Possible Points

1. The extent to which work meets the assigned criteria and work reflects graduate level critical and analytic thinking (0-30 Points)

Assignment exceeds expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 75% containing exceptional breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics.

25-30

Assignment meets expectations. All topics are addressed with a minimum of 50% containing good breadth and depth about each of the assignment topics.

20-24

Assignment meets most of the expectations. One required topic is either not addressed or inadequately addressed.

16-19

Assignment superficially meets some of the expectations. Two or more required topics are either not addressed or inadequately addressed.

0-15

2. Purpose of the paper is clear (0-5 Points)

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement is provided which delineates all required criteria.

5

Purpose of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive.

4

Purpose of the assignment is vague.

1-3

No purpose statement was provided.

0

ASSIMILATION AND SYNTHESIS OF IDEAS – 50 Possible Points

The extent to which the work reflects the student’s ability to-

1. Understand and interpret the assignment’s key concepts (0-10 Points)

Demonstrates the ability to critically appraise and intellectually explore key concepts.

9-10

Demonstrates a clear understanding of key concepts.

8

Shows some degree of understanding of key concepts.

5-7

Shows a lack of understanding of key concepts, deviates from topics.

0-4

2. Apply and integrate material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) and credible outside resources (0-20 Points)

Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

15-20

Integrates specific information from 1 credible outside resource and 3 to 4 course resources to support major points and point of view.

10-14

Minimally includes and integrates specific information from 2-3 resources to support major points and point of view.

3-9

Includes and integrates specific information from 0 to 1 resource to support major points and point of view.

0-2

3. Synthesize (combines various components or different ideas into a new whole) material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) by comparing different points of view and highlighting similarities, differences, and connections. (0-20 Points)

Synthesizes and justifies (defends, explains, validates, confirms) information gleaned from sources to support major points presented. Applies meaning to the field of advanced nursing practice.

18-20

Summarizes information gleaned from sources to support major points, but does not synthesize.

16-17

Identifies but does not interpret or apply concepts, and/or strategies correctly; ideas unclear and/or underdeveloped.

14-15

Rarely or does not interpret, apply, and synthesize concepts, and/or strategies.

0-13

WRITTEN EXPRESSION AND FORMATTING – 15 Possible Points

1. Paragraph and Sentence Structure: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are clearly structured and carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. (0-5 Points). NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards.

5

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 80% of the time.

4

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 70% of the time.

3

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards < 70% of the time.

0-2

2. English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation (0-5 Points)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

5

Contains a few (1-2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

4

Contains several (3-4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

0-2

3. The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list (0-5 Points)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

5

Contains a few (1-2) APA format errors.

4

Contains several (3-4) APA format errors.

3

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

0-2

Total Points for Assignment:

Please copy and paste this rubric table at the end of all Application Assignments in order for your assignment to be graded.

Guidance for Application Assignments:

Application Assignments require a title page, introduction, body of the paper, conclusion, and reference page. The title page needs to follows APA style and includes a title, student name, course number and section, and date. An abstract is not required. APA style headings are to be used appropriately to separate and organize sections of the paper. The use of direct quotes is discouraged and should only be used when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable. The introduction should provide an overview of the topic, the purpose of the paper, and topics that will be addressed. The body of the paper needs to address all required topics. The conclusion ought to provide closure for the reader, synthesize the content, and tie everything together to help clarify the main points of the paper. The reference page should include all references cited in the assignment in correct APA format.. Some course assignments may require the use of more than 2 credible outside resources. In these cases, the minimum outside sources specified in the instructions for the assignment will be applied in the grading of these course assignments. Credible sources include scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, evidence based resources, and professional (.org), educational (.edu), and government websites (.gov). Commercial websites (.com) are not considered credible sources. Please note: When selecting articles for course assignments, you are advised (unless you are referencing seminal information) to focus on work published within the past five years.

Late Policies:

Assignments submitted late without prior agreement of the Instructor, outside of an emergency absence, or in violation of agreements for late submission, will receive a grade reduction for the Assignment amounting to a 20% point loss. After 5 days, the Assignment will not be graded. Students should be aware that late Assignments may not receive the same level of written feedback as do Assignments submitted on time. NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology – Adaptive Response, GERD Mind Maps, Veins and Arteries Disorders, Asthma & COPD Essay assignments.

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