Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

Factors That Influence Disease

In clinical settings, some of the most common questions that patients ask are Why do I have this? What caused this disorder? Will it ever go away? These emotional questions can be difficult to ask and to answer. However, for patients to come to terms with their diagnoses and adhere to treatment plans, they must have an understanding of factors that might have caused, or continue to impact, their disorders. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to explain disorders, associated alterations and symptoms, and changes that might occur within your patients’ bodies. Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

To prepare:

1.      Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro. Reflect on the importance of developing an in-depth understanding of pathophysiology.

2.      Select a disorder from the following list:

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a.      Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

b.      Colon cancer

c.      Cystic fibrosis

d.      Hemophilia

e.      Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)

f.       Osteoporosis

g.     Parkinson’s disease

h.      Tuberculosis

3.      Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how that factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms.

4.      Identify the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including the normal and altered cellular function. Consider both intra- and extra-cellular changes that occur. Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

Post a 1 page APA format-  (at least 2 references)

1.      A brief description of a patient scenario involving the disorder and the factor you selected.

2.      Explain how the factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms.

3.      Finally, explain the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including changes in cellular function.

 

Class Resources

·        Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

o   Chapter 1, “Cellular Biology”

This chapter reviews cellular biology to establish a foundation for exploring the pathophysiology of disease. It also covers the structure and function of cellular components, cell-to-cell adhesions, cellular communication, cellular metabolism, membrane transport, the cell cycle, and tissues.

o   Chapter 2, “Genes and Genetic Diseases”

This chapter explores genetic disorders and factors that impact genetic disorders. It also examines how mutations and chromosomal abnormalities lead to transmission of genetic disorders.

o   Chapter 3, “Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology”

This chapter examines disorders related to cell adaptation, injury, and death. It also explores disorders associated with altered cellular and tissue function as a result of aging. Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

·        McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2012). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

o   Chapter 2, “Genetic Disease”

This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and genetic principles of genetic diseases. It also explores different types of genetic diseases and the mechanisms involved.

o   Chapter 5, “Neoplasia”

This chapter explores various disorders associated with neoplasia. It also covers causes and effects of common cancers and tumors resulting from neoplasia.

Media

·        Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012d). Introduction to advanced pathophysiology. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

Week 1 Discussion

NURS

6501

A 60-year-old male presents to the office complaining of a change in bowel habits, and blood noted in his stool.  The patient is overweight, a smoker, and drinks alcohol on a regular basis.  The patient states he has been having abdominal cramps recently and feels as if he is bloated.  At his last office visit, the patient was recently diagnosed as pre-diabetic.  A family history reveals his sister has breast cancer, and his father died of colon cancer at the age of 57. Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

Colon Cancer

Colon cancer is a cancer of the large intestine.  Most diagnosed cases start out as benign adenomatous polyps that produce little to no symptoms ( Mayo Clinic, 2017).  Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is diagnosed more frequently in men than women (Majek, Gondos, Jansen, & Emrich, 2013).  Because CRC usually starts out as polyps, it is recommended that patients have a colonoscopy at the age of fifty and regular screenings to obtain a baseline and to identify and remove noted polyps before they turn cancerous (American Cancer Society, 2016).

Pathophysiology

Cancer is the abnormal growth and division of cells that invade other tissues and organs in the body.  A benign tumor can easily turn into a malignant tumor.  Malignant tumors are characterized by rapid cell growth rate, the loss of cell differentiation, and the absence of normal tissue organization.  CRC is thought to have an association with a family history of cancer, environmental factors, and the mutation of tumor suppression genes.  The polyps that are associated with CRC are a protrusion from the mucosal lining of the epithelium and once defined as cancerous, called adenomatous polyps.  The polyps undergo multiple genetic changes that lead to the carcinoma.  CRC has a long pre-invasive timeframe. Tumors grow slowly and have to invade several layers of the epithelium before entering the bloodstream and lymphatic system to metastasize throughout the body (Huether & McCance, 2017). Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

Associated Factors

Factors associated with CRC include age (greater than 50), family history, history of colon polyps, obesity, physical inactivity and a diet high in red meats or processed meats.  Smoking, heavy alcohol use, a history of inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease, diabetes or a previous history of cancer are also risk factors for CRC (American Cancer Society, 2016).  The patient in this scenario is over the age of 50, has a family history of cancer, smokes, and drinks alcohol, and is overweight and pre-diabetic. The patient’s behavioral risk factors put him at higher risk for CRC.  Being overweight, especially in the abdominal girth, and male, greatly increase the chances of developing CRC (American Cancer Society, 2016).  The patient has several preventable modifiable behaviors he can change.

The patient presented with a change in bowel habits, blood in his stool and abdominal discomfort.  The symptoms of CRC usually are seen later in the progression of the disease.  Besides the presented symptoms, other associated symptoms are weakness, fatigue, sudden weight loss, and a feeling of the bowel not emptying completely ( Mayo Clinic, 2017).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Regular screenings should be obtained at the age of 50 for CRC.  Changing modifiable risk factors such as starting a high fiber diet, exercising, smoking cessation, and reduction of alcohol intake decreases potential risk ( Mayo Clinic, 2017).  The staging of CRC is done through imaging and surgical exploration.  Surgery is the recommended treatment in all four stages.  Chemotherapy and radiation may be given to reduce tumor size before surgery. Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

It is imperative to have an innate understanding of the disease process and the pathophysiology to correctly diagnose or refer a patient to the correct specialization (Education, 2012).  Many diseases have similar signs and symptoms, if the basic disease process is not understood, a patient could be misdiagnosed.  An advanced practice nurse should be able to differentiate between symptoms, and know why the symptoms occur during the disease process.

References

Mayo Clinic. (2017, October 31). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/colon-cancer/…causes/syc-20353669

American Cancer Society. (2016, October 15). Retrieved from American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org

Education, L. (Director). (2012). Introduction to Advanced Pathophysiology [Motion Picture].

Huether, S., & McCance, K. (2017). Understanding Pathophysiology. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Majek, O., Gondos, A., Jansen, L., & Emrich, K. (2013). Sex Differences in Colorectal Survival. Plos One, 8(7), 1-7. Retrieved from http://www.plosone.org Nurs 6501 Week 1 Discussion – Factors That Influence Disease – Cancer Essay example

 

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