Ontario health care system Essay- Primary Care Research Paper Assignment

TOPIC: Primary Care

Research Paper Assignment


  • Primary care has been touted as the answer to real transformational change

and improved integration of Ontario’s health care system.

–    Discuss the definitions of primary (health) care and primary medical

    care and the similarities and differences between them.

–    Describe the rationale behind the belief that primary care is a critical component of improved integration.

–    Discuss the key roadblocks that must be addressed and what can/should be done

Evaluation Criteria

.Application of the concepts and frameworks from lectures and readings

.Ability to synthesize and incorporate course ideas

.Ability to construct a coherent and well-informed argument based on a review of the literature (new articles beyond the course readings are required).

.Clarity of the research paper

.Note that descriptive papers are not sufficient as the teaching team wants to see an understanding and not merely a regurgitation of information.





















Primary Care

The state of complete mental, physical and social well being of a person combined with the absence of disease and infirmity is what constitutes good human health. The health care sector is mandated with the task of overseeing that its citizens are able to remain in a state of complete physical health. There are different departments and sections within the health care department that serve these functions at a variable level. One of these departments is the primary care sector that forms the core foundation of most health care systems. Primary care is one of the sections within health care that serves the umbrella function of providing very basic care to patients. This care is often  provided on a daily basis by either a physician, health worker or a nurse. The person offering this kind of care is usually the first person of contact with the patient and they are supposed to coordinate all other involvements with this sick person. Due to the basic nature of primary health care, many countries and states have put in place measures to improve the service delivery.

In Ontario, primary care has been touted as the answer to real transformational change and improved integration of its health care system. This is because primary care is regarded as one of its fundamental pillars in the health system. Therefore, this state thrives to foster the improvement of quality medical and health care to its people. It does this by providing the appropriate and adequate resources, strategies and initiatives to help primary care to become more efficient. The primary care providers such as the nurse practitioners and the physicians are also given additional training so that they can be competent at what they do. In any case, the core aim of primary care is to make sure that patients receive the most basic treatment and care in a quality and effective manner. This paper is an incisive and descriptive essay that discusses the importance of primary care by focusing on Ontario’s health care system.

  1. Discuss the definitions of primary (health) care and primary medical care

Primary health care or PHC is a segment of health care that deals with scientific and socially accepted methods of providing health care to individuals. This type of care is tasked with the duty of ensuring that health care is accessible to everyone within the community, society or even country (Chrystal et al, 2015). As such, primary health care strives to become universal, so that every person can at least have access to a medical facility. PHC is also an approach that strives to see that health is achieved through additional medical and social policies. This bracket of health care includes all the areas that play a very instrumental role in health (Phillips et al, 2014).

This means that primary health care is intertwined with the individual’s lifestyle, their environment and how they access health care. Consequently, primary health care can be considered as a cornerstone that can be used to achieve the ideal health system on a universal scale. The ultimate goal and objective of primary health care is to improve health accessibility and ensure that all people can be able to visit a health facility (Pype et al, 2014). PHC is able to do this by reducing the gap that exists between social classes and disparities in the health care sector. Secondly, PHC also strives to organize and deliver health services that are within the needs and expectations of the people. This is normally considered as part of service delivery reform. Thirdly, primary health care aims at integrating health into all the available sectors of the economy (Thomas et al, 2015).

This includes both the public and private policies of reforms. In addition, PHC also pursues the collaborative models of policy and dialogue so that it can increase the participation of the respective stakeholders (Thomas et al, 2015). On the other hand, primary medical care aims at providing the highest quality of medical care to all sick people and patients. In addition, primary medical care or PMC endeavors to prevent illnesses, diseases and health conditions in the patients themselves. The overall aim of PMC is to work together with the health professionals to provide quality care that is also comprehensive and integrated as well (Giltenane et al, 2015). The practice of PMC includes the promotion of health, prevention of diseases, maintaining health and diagnosis of diseases. In addition, primary medical care also deals with counseling and educating the patient, providing in-patient and out patient care as well as offering other medical forms of care such as home care and day care.

Primary medical care is performed and provided by a personal physician, doctor or health practitioner. This person works with the collaboration of other important parties such health professionals (Jenstad and Donnelly, 2015). This ensures that the provision of PMC is such that there is a total utilization of the appropriate processes so that medical care is of utmost quality. In addition, PMC strives to become cost-effective so that virtually all people can afford it. Primary medical care is a practice that is considered as the first point of entry of the patient to the health care system. What’s more, it also serves as a continuing focal point for the medical care services that are needed (Mundt et al, 2015).

This means that primary medical care also has a mission of providing patients with the access to the physician or doctor that they want to treat them.  In overall, primary medical care is generally structured to provide medical attention to the larger majority. The state of Ontario is striving hard to provide quality primary medical and health care. ­Presently, Ontario does not have a well coordinated or comprehensive approach  that deals with the performance of this medical sector. In fact, statistics show that Ontarios primary medical and health care compare quite poorly with other states and cities (Ngiap et al, 2014).

This means that the health care sector in Ontario also falters if it is compared to other states on the same level. As such, a lot of effort is being placed towards the primary care sector in Ontario so that areas and loopholes of possible improvement are identified. This began when the health quality unit in Ontario saw the dire need to have a large-scale approach that can measure the performance of both primary medical and health care (Ngiap et al, 2014).

This measurement can be done at the practice and system levels where specific programs are usually launched. These performance initiatives are undertaken together with the collaborative efforts of key stakeholders in the medical fraternity. The end product of these efforts is to ensure that health care is available and affordable for all.

  1. Similarities and differences between primary (health) care and primary medical care

Both primary medical care and primary health care are perceived to be the most comprehensive rationale behind the provision of health and medical services. However, the two fields of care have a number of similarities and differences. Primary medical care and primary health care are two terms that are used interchangeably on a very regular basis. However, it should be noted that the two terms are used to denote and refer to very different concepts. These two terms describe very distinct and unique entities that relate to aspects within the medical field. Primary medical care deals with approaches that include policies and regulations that can reform the sector. One of the similarities between PMC and PHC is that both of these terms deal with the process of providing medical attention in the best way possible (Chrystal et al, 2015).

Both of these disciplines strive to ensure that medical attention is available to people at an affordable cost. Additionally, both PMC and PHC are governed by some policies and rules, some of which are formulated by the World Health Organization. If the focus is placed on Ontario, the PHC sector supports families and individuals so that they can make the best and informed decision concerning their health. In addition, PHC in Ontario includes the provision of advice on the best and suitable strategies of promoting health and preventing diseases (Phillips et al, 2014). In as much as there are similarities between PMC and PHC, There are also a couple of differences that exist between primary health care and primary medical care. To begin with, primary medical care is often used in describing a family practice where a small number of individuals are given urgent attention. On other other hand, primary health care is a broader term that usually encompasses the wider selection of people such as providers of health care (Phillips et al, 2014). PHC also includes the function and services of other stakeholders and how they aspire to achieve these goals. Sometimes, primary health care is regarded as a bracket of health care that is founded on the principles of offering fair and accessible to almost all people.            Secondly, PHC endeavors to remain relevant to the people by ensuring that their medica needs are met (Pype et al, 2014). Primary health care differs from primary medical care in that it is more cost effective and uses various forms of technology to provide quality care to patients. The World Health Organization plays a very instrumental role in ensuring that all children and adults can be able to access quality and affordable health care (Pype et al, 2014).  This is achieved by following their policies and rules that are part of their mission. PHC also takes into account the demographics and population index of various places so that it can know how best to serve people in a given area (Jenstad and Donnelly, 2015).  There are numerous explanations that continue to be given for both primary medical or health care. The fact remains that both are distinctly different and they should not be used interchangeably.



  1. Describe the rationale behind the belief that primary care is a critical component of improved integration.

The Ontario health care system is amid one of the best medical systems in the world. Residents who qualify for this health system have the privilege  to access various kinds of health care facilities in their community (Jenstad and Donnelly, 2015).  In Ontario, citizens are given a medical health cover insurance that will cater for their medical needs during emergencies. There are various ways of getting non-emergency medical care in Ontario. One of them is by trained medical staff answering the patients’ questions via phone (Giltenane et al, 2015). Family doctors, nurses and other health care providers are usually the ones in most cases concerned with checking out and attending to patients’ medical complications. Primary health care is a necessity for an improved medical integration, and an example can be seen in treatment for chronic diseases like cancer, heart complications, kidney failures, and many other diseases.

In most countries, primary health care is practiced by nurses, and other health providers (Thomas et al, 2015).  In preventing chronic diseases, multiple guidelines have been developed to help general physicians in the avoidance of Chronic diseases. The prospective role of general practice comprises the identification and delivery of brief interventions to avert chronic disease and also the referral to other facilities and programs. A number of industrialized nations have introduced and embarked on healthcare reforms, these reforms is aimed at improving their systems of delivering primary health care (Jenstad and Donnelly, 2015). With the introduction of medical reforms, many people are able to access primary medical care and the rate of their attendants increased.

Launching a more rational basis for referrals and taming the coordination between primary care and specialist doctors making primary care practice more interesting and rationally fulfilling. Nations should embrace the distribution of both primary care and specialists by modifying their authorizing rules to health requirements in different areas or by providing financial enticements for practicing in harsh areas, as is done in some other nations. Primary care is a necessity and so ways of improving it must be incorporated (Mundt et al, 2015).  Allocating more funds to facilitate research in primary health care will be of great help in the expansion of this service, as this will benefit many people in the community.

  1. Discuss the key roadblocks that must be addressed and what can/should be done

Delivering worthy patient care is aim number one for most medical practices, but good objectives are not constantly enough if your management progressions keep falling apart (Ngiap et al, 2014).  Fort Wayne Medical Education Program (FWMEP),  family health program in Indiana came up with several road blocks that hindered the administration of primary health care, and possible ways on how to overcome them  Some of these roadblocks that must be addressed within the Ontario health and reform system are presented below:

  1. Scheduling visits more effectively

As a busy practice seeing 100 patients a day, FWMEP has to quickly look for possible solutions on how to attend to patients and especially those with acute health problems. First, and foremost, WMEP created fifteen appointment slots, each taking place morning and afternoon hours (Jenstad and Donnelly, 2015).  Secondly, The exercise established two brochures that focus on the need for preventive  care, one for young teenagers and the other for adults (Ngiap et al, 2014). Usually, these services were offered to patients and parents during their  appointment periods, and the exercise plans to widen delivery services to patients who are not planning on performing preventive exams frequently.


  1. Providing two visits in one

One major obstacle to executing a double visit procedure was the absence of coding and reimbursement skills amid the medical practice. To curb this, doctors were taught how to clearly deal with both services in the patient’s electronic health record and correctly code them with the use of modifier 25 to show that a major, separately distinguishable service was delivered on the same day (Jenstad and Donnelly, 2015). At first, this resulted to consternation, but after few weeks of practice, a careful evaluation discovered that adding ten minutes to accommodate well-child checks was not troublesome and in fact improved the treatment time.

  • Reducing missed appointments

To handle the  roadblock of missed appointments, the practice should take a detailed overview of mails sent by patients to their physicians for those who did not make for their ideal appointment day.  For instance, FWMEP found out that though they requested patients to reorganize for their appointments, the mails did not have any information on how to contact these patients (Mundt et al, 2015).  The practice came up with a new mail highlighting the practice’s contact numbers and e-mail address, so that the doctors could communicate with patients and know why they missed their appointments. FWMEP also got the support of AmeriHealth Mercy of Indiana, which promised to handle communications when patients missed three or more appointments (Mundt et al, 2015). The practice also reviewed its method for appointment approval phone calls. Even though patients will get appointment notices from an automated system two days before their planned appointment, they must be reminded on that specific day their appointment will occur, and most patients will be contacted in the morning.



  1. Increasing newborn care

To avoid postpartum and preliminary newborn care from subsiding through the cracks, the doctors deliver hospital care to moms and children (Thomas et al, 2015). In addition, they have to use the discharge paperwork for each of their patients to one of the two triage nurses employed by the practice. The nurse follows up straight with the patient to program the newborn and postpartum appointment (Ngiap et al, 2014). Patients get an automated an approval call two days prior these appointments. The practice is making an allowance for the emergence of a postpartum and nursery standing-order sheet to train hospital ward workers to review the exercise earlier before the patient is cleared from the hospital to plan for the postpartum and newborn check-ups (Ngiap et al, 2014).

  1. Positive results

The new scheduling conventions which include welcome calls to new patients, approval calls for all well-child checks and postpartum follow-up calls, were tabled in by earlier staff after reshuffling and relocating jobs. Using a system that makes enhanced utilization of  providers’ time, instead of the addition of more hours, the practice’s volume and revenue both improved (Chrystal et al, 2015). Most significantly, kids are getting the preventive, primary care they require. This advantage has proved that refining outcomes may contain much more than revising what goes on in the exam room (Phillips et al, 2014). Enhanced aftermaths may well depend upon uncovering and eradicating the barriers a practice makes, and  how it succeeds in accessing it.


Primary care is vital for building a durable health care system that warrants positive health outcomes, usefulness and competence, and health impartiality. It is the first interaction in a health care system for people and is embracing coordination and completeness. It offers  individual, community-oriented and family-focused  care for treating, preventing, or improving common infections and disabilities, and supporting health. In both developed and developing countries, primary care has been proven to be connected with enriched access to health care services, improved health aftermaths, and a reduction in hospitalization and use of emergency unit visits. Primary care can also aid in offsetting the negative effect of poor economic conditions on health. Thus, the research recommends the necessity to intensify the supply of primary care physicians globally.

Alternatively, research has pointed out that nations and regions more focused on the primary care have lesser healthcare expenses, but improved health outcomes, though advance studies using formal cost-effectiveness ways need to be piloted. Cost-effectiveness of primary care has been purposely recognized through a limited interventions performed in primary care settings, and embracing of health information systems in primary care settings may lead to improved  financial achievements.



Chrystal, J. G., Glover, D. L., Young, A. S., Whelan, F., Austin, E. L., Johnson, N. K., &             Kertesz, S. G. (2015). Experience of Primary Care among Homeless                                               Individuals with Mental Health Conditions. Plos ONE, 10(2), 1-14.                                       doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117395

Giltenane, M., Kelly, M., & Dowling, M. (2015). Public health nurses’ (PHNs) experiences of                   their role as part of a primary care team (PCT) in Ireland. Australian Journal Of             Advanced Nursing, 32(3), 6-15.

Jenstad, L. M., & Donnelly, M. (2015). Hearing Care for Elders: A Personal Reflection on                        Participatory Action Learning With Primary Care Providers. American Journal Of Audiology, 24(1), 23-30. doi:10.1044/2014_AJA-14-0051

Mundt, M. P., Gilchrist, V. J., Fleming, M. F., Zakletskaia, L. I., Tuan, W., & Beasley, J. W.                     (2015). Effects of Primary Care Team Social Networks on Quality of Care and Costs for Patients With Cardiovascular Disease. Annals Of Family Medicine, 13(2), 139-148.          doi:10.1370/afm.1754

Ngiap Chuan, T., Chirk Jenn, N., Rosemary, M., Wahid, K., & Lee Gan, G. (2014). Developing               a primary care research agenda through collaborative efforts — a proposed      “6E” model.     Asia Pacific Family Medicine, 13(1), 1-13. doi:10.1186/s12930-014-0017-9

Phillips, J. P., Petterson, S. M., Bazemore, A. W., & Phillips, R. L. (2014). A Retrospective           Analysis of the Relationship Between Medical Student Debt and Primary Care Practice in             the United States. Annals Of Family Medicine, 12(6), 542-549. doi:10.1370/afm.1697

Pype, P., Peersman, W., Wens, J., Stes, A., Van den Eynden, B., & Deveugele, M. (2014). What,             how and from whom do health care professionals learn during collaboration in palliative       home care: a cross-sectional study in primary palliative care. BMC Health Services        Research, 14(1), 247-266. doi:10.1186/s12913-014-0501-9

Thomas, K., Krevers, B., & Bendtsen, P. (2015). Implementing healthy lifestyle promotion in                   primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study evaluating a team initiative.            PMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 650-669. doi:10.1186/s12913-015-0688-4

Open chat
chat us now
Whatsapp Online Nursing Papers
We will write your work from scratch and ensure it's plagiarism-free, you just submit.