Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter.

To prepare for this Discussion:

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Review this week\’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide.
Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.
Take the pretest for the case study.
Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.
Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.) Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter.
Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.
Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.
Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.
Review the posttest for the case study.

 

To prepare for this Discussion:

Note: To access the following case studies, click on the Case Studies tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate volume and case number. (Already attached with this posting)

 

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide. Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter.

Go to the Stahl Online website and examine the case study you were assigned.

Take the pretest for the case study.

Review the patient intake documentation, psychiatric history, patient file, medication history, etc. As you progress through each section, formulate a list of questions that you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office.

Based on the patient’s case history, consider other people in his or her life that you would need to speak to or get feedback from (i.e., family members, teachers, nursing home aides, etc.).

Consider whether any additional physical exams or diagnostic testing may be necessary for the patient.

Develop a differential diagnoses for the patient. Refer to the DSM-5 in this week’s Learning Resources for guidance.

Review the patient’s past and current medications. Refer to Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide and consider medications you might select for this patient.

Review the posttest for the case study.

 

By Day 3

Post a response to the following:

Provide the case number in the subject line of the Discussion.

List three questions you might ask the patient if he or she were in your office. Provide a rationale for why you might ask these questions.

Identify people in the patient’s life you would need to speak to or get feedback from to further assess the patient’s situation. Include specific questions you might ask these people and why.

Explain what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate for the patient and how the results would be used.

List three differential diagnoses for the patient. Identify the one that you think is most likely and explain why. Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter.

List two pharmacologic agents and their dosing that would be appropriate for the patient’s ADHD therapy based on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. From a mechanism of action perspective, provide a rationale for why you might choose one agent over the other.

If your assigned case includes “check points” (i.e., follow-up data at week 4, 8, 12, etc.), indicate any therapeutic changes that you might make based on the data provided.

Explain “lessons learned” from this case study, including how you might apply this case to your own practice when providing care to patients with similar clinical presentations.

 

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Clancy, C.M., Change, S., Slutsky, J., & Fox, S. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effectiveness of treatment in at-risk preschoolers; long-term effectiveness in all ages; and variability in prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment.  Table B. KQ2: Long-term(>1 year) effectiveness of interventions for ADHD in people 6 years and older.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

Chapter 12, “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Treatment”

Stahl, S. M., & Mignon, L. (2012). Stahl’s illustrated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

To access the following chapter, click on the Illustrated Guides tab and then the ADHD tab.

Chapter 4, “ADHD Treatments”

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

 

Review the following medications:

For ADHD

armodafinil

amphetamine (d)

amphetamine (d,l)

atomoxetine

bupropion

chlorpromazine

clonidine

guanfacine

haloperidol

lisdexamfetamine

methylphenidate (d)

methylphenidate (d,l)

modafinil

reboxetine

 

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

 

Optional Resources

Hodgkins, P., Shaw, M., McCarthy, S., & Sallee, F. R. (2012). The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: Does composition matter? CNS Drugs, 26(3), 245–268. doi:10.2165/11599630-000000000-00000

Psychiatric Times. (2016). A 5-question quiz on ADHD. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/adhd/5-question-quiz-adhd?GUID=AA46068B-C6FF-4020-8933-087041A0B140&rememberme=1&ts=22072016 Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

Course Texts

These course texts are available through Stahl Online Resources http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://stahlonline.cambridge.org/

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Stahl, S. M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

 

Table B. KQ2: Long-term (>1 year) effectiveness of interventions for ADHD in people 6 years and

older Conclusion

Medication Treatment

Level of EvidenceIntervention SOE: Low Very few studies include untreated controls.

Studies were largely funded by industry. SMD: -0.54 (95% Cl, -0.79 to -0.29)

MPH:

Psychostimulants continue to provide control of ADHD symptoms and are generally well tolerated for months to years

ATX: at a time. The evidence for MPH use in the context of careful SMD: -0.40 (95% medication monitoring shows good evidence for benefits for Cl, -0.61 to -0.18) symptoms for 14 months.

ATX is effective for ADHD symptoms and well tolerated over 12 months.

SOE: Insufficient Only one study of GXR monotherapy is available. It reports reduced ADHD symptoms and global improvement, although less than a fifth of participants completed 12 months.

Monitoring of cardiac status may be indicated since approximately 1% of participants showed EGG changes judged clinically significant.

Combined The results from 2 cohorts indicate both medication (MPH) and Psychostimulant

SOE: Low combined medication and behavioral treatment are effective in

Medication and SMD: -0.70 (95% treating ADHD plus ODD symptoms in children, primarily boys Behavioral ages 7-9 years of nomnal intelligence with combined type of Treatment

Cl, -0.95 to -0.46) ADHD, especially during the first 2 years of treatment.

Several reports from one high-quality study suggest that combined medication and behavioral treatment improves outcomes more than medication alone for some subgroups of children with ADHD combined type and for some outcomes.

Behavioral/ There is not enough evidence to draw conclusions for persons Psychosocial

SOE: Insufficient 6 years and older with a diagnosis of ADHD.

Parent Behavior There is not enough evidence to draw conclusions for persons Training

SOE: Insufficient 6 years and older with a diagnosis of ADHD.

Academic Interventions One good-quality study and its extension showed that classroom-based programs to enhance academic skills are effective in improving achievement scores in multiple domains, but following discontinuation, the benefits for sustained growth in academic skills are limited to the domain of reading fluency. All other domains show skill maintenance but not continued growth.

SOE: Insufficient

.. Note: ADHD- attention defictt hyperactlvtty dtsorder, ATX- atomoxetine, ECG- electrocardiOgram, GXR- guanfacme extended release; KQ =Key Question; MPH= methylphenidate; ODD= oppositional defiant disorder; SMD =standardized mean difference; SOE =strength ofevidence.

ES-15

Pharmacological Interventions Multiple short-term studies document that psycho stimulant medications, either MPH,

dextroamphetamine (DEX), or mixed amphetamine salts (MAS), effectively decrease the core symptoms of ADHD and associated impairment. 10 A review of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological interventions for ADHD is beyond the scope of this report. Some preparations last only a few hours, with symptoms returning as the medication wears off. Many families choose to use medication primarily on school days, and these medications have primarily been studied in school-aged children and youth aged 6 years and older. Psychostimulants, most connnonly MPH and DEX, are generally safe and well tolerated. Common side effects include poor appetite, insomnia, headaches, stomachaches, and increased blood pressure and heart rate. Prolonged use may result in a decreased rate of growth, generally considered clinically insignificant.n8 Concerns have been raised from postmarketing surveillance suggesting a rare incidence of sudden death, perhaps associated with pre-existing cardiac defects, however, the rate does not appear to exceed that of the base rate of sudden death in the population. 118 As noted earlier, approximately 2.5 million children in the United States, ages 4 to 17 years with a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or ADHD, cunently take medication.4

Several extended release preparations of psychostimulants have been developed in recent years aimed at improved adherence and symptom control throughout the day as well as decreased abuse potential. 120 Non-stimulants (e.g., alpha adrenergic agents and atomoxetine (A TX)) have also been developed and found to be helpful in controlling symptoms with few adverse events. 121 However, in general, the benefits ofmedications wear offwhen they are discontinued. Since ADHD is a chronic disorder, many children, teens, and adults stay on medications for years at a time. Given the possibility of cumulative effects over time, a review of evidence regarding benefits and risks ofprolonged medication use for ADHD is indicated.

Nonpharmacological Interventions In the area of nonpharmacologic interventions, behavior training has been found to be

helpful, primarily for disruptive behaviors that frequently coincide with ADHD. 122 Since ADHD may begin before school age, using the precedent of older children, increasing numbers of preschoolers are being identified and treated, sometimes with medications. However, the most commonly used psychostimulant, MPH, does not yet have government regulatory approval for use in children less than 6 years of age, while MAS has been granted aEproval by the FDA in the United States for children under 6 years, but older than 3 years of age. 2 Recent reviews of treatments for preschoolers with ADHD emphasize the use ofparenting interventions prior to medication based on general clinical consensus. 124 Indeed, the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), funded by the U.S. National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH), included parent behavior training (PBT) as the first phase for all children recruited into the study prior to randomization for the purpose of evaluating efficacy and safety ofpsychostimulant medication.125 While the few studies available suggest stimulant medications are effective for the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in very young children, psychostimulants also appear to cause more adverse events in preschool children than in older children.54 Beyond the PATS, little information exists to document effectiveness of either medication or non-medication interventions specifically for ADHD in this age group. Part ofthe difficulty has been lack of clarity regarding reliability and validity of diagnostic criteria and therefore lack ofwidespread application of the ADHD diagnosis for children under 6 years.n 9

 

PATIENT FILE

The Case: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

The Question: How often does ADHD run in families?

The Dilemma: When you see a child with ADHD should you also evaluate the parents and siblings?

Pretest Self Assessment Question (answer at the end of the case)

Patients with comorbid ADHD and anxiety should in general not be prescribed stimulants

A. True B. False

Patient Intake • 26-year-old woman • Has a daughter with ADHD • Psychiatrist noted symptoms in the mother and suggested she come

in for her own evaluation • See the previous Case 13, p 133 for presentation of the daughter’s

case

Psychiatric History • During interviews with the patient’s daughter (also attended by the

patient) over the past several months, it was not only noted that the daughter has ADHD with comorbid ODD, but that the mother also exhibited multiple symptoms consistent with lifelong and undiagnosed ADHD including

– Mother misses appointments or is late for appointments – Often appears disorganized – Did not fi ll out her child’s forms on time – Did not deliver forms to her child’s teacher, forgot, lost them – Admits being very disorganized since her second child started

school – Feels overwhelmed by two children and her life circumstances – Could also have some signs of depression – Can’t get organized to take her child to CBT – Has a hard time keeping a regular schedule and also keeping her

daughter on a regular schedule of going to bed and waking up – Was unable to remember to remove the daughter’s skin patch

unless she set a cell phone alarm – All these suggest further evaluation of the mother is indicated

since ADHD commonly runs in families and has a very high genetic contribution

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• Has always done poorly academically • Has always felt intimidated by any type of testing • In addition, reports that she has always been worried about the future

and fi nancial stability of her family • Says she sometimes mentally “freezes when it gets to be too much” • When her eight year old daughter was diagnosed with ADHD, she

suddenly realized that she had similar problems as a child • The psychiatrist explained to her that ADHD was highly heritable and

that there was a 75% chance of having a child with ADHD if both parents have ADHD and thus was asked to fi ll out an Adult ADHD screening form

Social and Personal History • High school drop out, age 17 after getting pregnant • Married age 17, divorced 2 years later • Two children, ages 8 and 6 • Smoker • No drug or alcohol abuse • Single mother works full time in retail • Father not much involved with his children

Medical History • None notable • BP normal • BMI normal • Normal lab tests

Family History • 8-year-old daughter: recently diagnosed with ADHD • Other family history unknown as the patient was adopted • See the previous Case 13, p 133 for presentation of the daughter’s

case

Patient Intake • The last time the patient brought her child to see the psychiatrist, the

mother was asked to fi ll out her own checklist, the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale Symptom Checklist

– She endorsed many items, mostly inattentive but not really hyperactive or impulsive such as:

– Having trouble wrapping up the fi nal details of a project once the challenging parts have been done

– Diffi culty getting things in order – Diffi culty remembering appointments or obligations

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– Making careless mistakes on diffi cult projects – Diffi culty keeping attention on repetitive work – Misplacing things at home and work – Distracted by activity around her – Diffi culty unwinding and relaxing when having time to herself – Diffi culty focusing/listening during conversations

• Earlier, the mother was also requested to obtain copies of her report cards from fi rst and second grade

– Her own mother had kept these in storage – Showed grades that were quite low – Her teachers had commented on some of the problems endorsed

in the adult ADHD checklist that she continues to experience as an adult

• Asked how these problems affect her life, she states that: – They cause great diffi culty managing family matters – She used to be unable to stay focused in conversations with her

ex-husband, which made him feel she did not care about him • Additional complaints include:

– Constantly feeling overwhelmed with taking care of the two children while working fulltime

– Blaming herself for her daughter’s academic diffi culties – Feeling very emotional and overwhelmed

– “I’m sorry, doctor, but two kids are just too much for this single mom”

• Having diffi culty sleeping and being irritable with the children at night, which she regrets later on

• Has many worries, about fi nances, about the future, about her children’s futures, about getting a better job, about getting her own education, about fi nding a new partner

Based on just what you have been told so far about this patient’s history and symptoms, what do you think is her diagnosis?

• Appropriate response to her circumstances with her severe psychosocial stressors

• Mostly just stress and anxiety • ADHD • ADHD and stress • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) • Major depressive episode • ADHD and GAD • Other

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PATIENT FILE

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Attending Physician’s Mental Notes: Initial Psychiatric Evaluation • Here is a case that indeed is ADHD, but her symptoms also suggest

that she suffers from GAD – Constant worry – Feeling on edge – Fatigue – Diffi culty concentrating and her mind going blank – Irritability – Trouble sleeping

• Most adults with ADHD are comorbid for a second psychiatric disorder, and the most common is GAD

• Also, this patient is a smoker which may be related to her ADHD since a disproportionate number of ADHD patients smoke, perhaps because of the therapeutic effects of nicotine on ADHD symptoms

How would you treat her?

• Stimulant for her ADHD • SSRI/SNRI for her GAD • Benzodiazepine as need for GAD and insomnia • Stimulant plus an SSRI/SNRI or benzo for both ADHD and GAD • CBT for both ADHD and GAD • Other

Attending Physician’s Mental Notes, Initial Psychiatric Evaluation, Continued • It seems as though the primary disorder is ADHD and it will be

simplest if this is treated fi rst, with a single drug, probably a stimulant • An SSRI/SNRI and/or benzodiazepine can be added at a later time

once the actions of the stimulant are evident • Even though patients with GAD alone or even normal controls may be

“over stimulated” by a stimulant, in many cases of ADHD comorbid with GAD, the stimulant is paradoxically calming and well tolerated and even works for GAD symptoms as well as ADHD symptoms without having to prescribe a second medication for the GAD

• Any stimulant could be chosen but not all are explicitly approved for treatment of ADHD in adults

• She was started on mixed salts d,l amphetamine XR (Adderall XR) • She was referred to a local mental health training program where she

could possibly get CBT for free or for a reduced rate from a trainee receiving supervision

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Case Outcome: First, Second, and Third Interim Followup Visits, Weeks 4, 8 and 12 • Due to scheduling issues, by the time the patient had her fi rst CBT

session, she had already been titrated to 20 mg of mixed salts of d,l – amphetamine XR

• She thought that the medication had already started to help her and in fact that she would not have been able to cooperate with the CBT assignments had she not been on the medication

• Because of lack of side effects but continuing ADHD and GAD symptoms, the dose of d,l-amphetamine XR increased to 30 mg (off label since the maximum approved dosage for adults is 20 mg)

• Her BP and pulse were stable on the 30 mg dose but she felt jittery particularly in the morning and around noon; she also felt very anxious about her job situation and being able to provide for her family

• Dose lowered to 25 mg, but the jitteriness persisted so the dosage was further lowerd to 20 mg

• The jitteriness abated but her ADHD symptoms were not well controlled on the 20 mg dose anymore

• Instructed to stay on 20 mg for two more weeks as she is going on vacation and not to change the dose until after her vacation and then retry the 25 mg dose again

• Complained of feeling overwhelmed and irritable • For most patients, a week between dosing adjustments for a stimulant

being used to treat ADHD is quite adequate • Weekly intervals give patients and clinicians a chance to see the way

that the dosage is working though the spectrum of challenges that occur in a typical week

• As vacations do not represent typical activities for a week, special consideration must be given to the effectiveness of medication changes that are done while a patient is on vacation

– Many adults with ADHD may relax on vacation and not challenge themselves with cognitive loads and multitasking so may appear to be better even without a medication change

– Other adults with ADHD, especially women with young children, may actually fi nd vacation more challenging

– For example, a parent with ADHD taking a family vacation with several children in tow may fi nd the planning and organization for the trip more taxing than anything encountered at work or during the normal routine at home

– It can also be diffi cult to manage timing the medication appropriately when traveling to different time zones

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156

Case Outcome: Fourth Interim Followup, Week 16 • “Glad to be back from vacation” • “I don’t think I could have even got through our vacation without my

medication, but I still have a hard time holding things together” • On at least 20 mg/day dosage of d,l-amphetamine XR combined with

CBT for 12 weeks, including a couple of weeks back from vacation, the patient still has problems with

– Organizing her day – Procrastinating – Following instructions – Losing items such as her keys which make her late for

appointments/activities • On the few days that the patient missed, and thus skipped, her

medication inadvertently she realized that the medication was really helping her concentrate and get through the day even though she remains symptomatic

• Knowing that she could achieve better functioning on medication she asked if other medications might accomplish this without the jittery and anxious feelings

• While other medication options were discussed, the CBT was continued which was slightly less helpful

How would you treat her now?

• Start lisdexamfetamine 30 mg once in the morning and titrate the dosage by 20 mg each week until an optimal dosage is achieved

• Start d-methylphenidate XR 10 mg once in the morning and titrate the dosage by 10 mg each week until an optimal dosage is achieved

• Start OROS methylphenidate 18 mg once in the morning and titrate the dosage by 18 mg each week until an optimal dose is achieved

• Start atomoxetine 40 mg a day and increase to 80 mg after one week

Attending Physician’s Mental Notes: Fourth Interim Followup, Week 16 • Lisdexamfetamine, d-methylphenidate XR, OROS methylphenidate,

and atomoxetine are all FDA-approved for the treatment of adults with ADHD

• On the one hand, the patient found her amphetamine-based stimulant to be very effective, and thus another long-acting stimulant would be reasonable

• On the other hand, she had jitteriness with the stimulant, and thus a non-stimulant would be equally reasonable

• After explaining the options, the patient elected to try another long- acting stimulant

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PATIENT FILE

157

• d-methylphenidate uses a bead-based technology similar to the mixed salts amphetamine XR in that 50 percent of the beads are immediate- release and 50 percent delayed-released

• Methylphenidate LA and d-methylphenidate XR employ the same patented SODAS technology in their delivery systems, but other long- acting forms of stimulants with beaded delivery systems vary due to proprietary differences in their manufacturing processes

• For instance, one formulation of methylphenidate utilizes a capsule that contains a ratio of 30 percent immediate-release beads and 70 percent delayed-released beads

• Although the different technologies used in beaded forms of stimulants can have clinical implications in individual cases, they all follow a similar design scheme:

– A bolus of stimulant medication becomes bioavailable rather quickly as the immediate-release beads dissolve

– Over time, the coating on the delayed-release beads deteriorates, allowing the stimulant contained within the bead to be released

– The medication within the delayed-release bead becomes bioavailable about four hours after the patient swallows the capsule

• Lisdexamfetamine is the only stimulant preparation that is a prodrug: – In its prodrug form, a lysine molecule is attached to

dextroamphetamine – Dextroamphetamine will not be active until the lysine is cleaved

from it – Cleaved lysine is an amino acid that does not contribute to the

clinical effi cacy of this medication • Lisdexamfetamine could be a good choice for multiple reasons:

– It uses a different delivery system that appears to have a more consistent interval to maximum concentration (Cmax)

• It is conceivable that the jitteriness this patient was experiencing was related more to the l-isomer than to the d-isomer

• A nonstimulant such as atomoxetine may be particularly useful in a patient who has stimulant related side effects, because atomoxetine does not cause these side effects

• Also, atomoxetine may be particularly useful in patients with comorbid anxiety

Case Outcome: Fourth Interim Followup, Week 16, Continued • In the end, the patient and the attending physician agreed upon a trial

of OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) • Main reasons for this choice:

– To be able to compare the benefi ts the patient experienced on an amphetamine preparation with those of a methylphenidate

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PATIENT FILE

158

preparation since patients may experience differing tolerabilities as well as effi cacies on methylphenidate versus amphetamine

– To be able to test the uniqueness of the OROS delivery system in terms of attained effi cacy with better tolerability

• OROS methylphenidate uses a delivery system that is quite different from beaded delivery systems:

– Coating of OROS methylphenidate contains 32 percent of the medication

– Remainder of medication is contained within a permeable membrane that allows water from the gut to enter once the coating of methylphenidate dissolves away

– Different concentrations of methylphenidate in gel form are contained in two compartments

– A push compartment absorbs water and expands like a sponge does, pushing the methylphenidate gel out of the hole at the opposite end

Case Outcome: Fifth Interim Followup, Week 20 • The patient’s dose was titrated from 18 mg to 72 mg over the course

of four weeks • Although she did not feel jittery, OROS methylphenidate 72 mg once a

day did not seem to work as well as the mixed salts amphetamine at 30 mg a day

• She voiced concerns that the dosage was more than double that of the mixed salts amphetamine dosage that was tried

• The psychiatrist explained that methylphenidate compounds are half as potent as amphetamine ones, and that 72 mg/day is an approved dose in adults

• She was reminded that her blood pressure and pulse had remained in the normal range throughout the titration, and she was told that some of the methylphenidate gel may remain inside the delivery system and not be bioavailable (inherent properties of OROS technology)

• After documenting that information about off-label use was given to the patient, the psychiatrist recommended to further increase the dose of OROS methylphenidate to 90 mg

Case Outcome: Sixth Interim Followup, Week 24 • The patient felt that 90 mg of OROS methylphenidate worked at least as

well as 30 mg of the mixed salts of d,l amphetamine XR • Her blood pressure and pulse increased a bit from baseline, but they

were still in the middle of the normal range

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• She still has some problems with organization and losing items, but she indicates she would continue CBT to address these

• Similar to when she was on the amphetamine compound, once her ADHD symptoms abated, her anxious feelings became more prominent Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

– “It’s like now that I can concentrate on my daily tasks, I also feel much more anxious about the fi nancial security of my children, and I often feel my throat tighten when I think about the fi nancial impact of the girls going to college”

– “The thought of losing my job or getting sick frightens me . . . what would happen to the girls?”

– She has trouble falling asleep at night, as her mind does not shut off

ADHD is often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders and one disorder can mask the symptoms of another. In the present case, this patient exhibits symptoms of anxiety, probably generalized anxiety disorder, especially more prominent every time her ADHD symptoms abate. How would you address the patient’s anxiety at this point?

• Augment with a benzodiazepine • Augment with buspirone • Augment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or SNRI • Incorporate techniques to resolve anxiety into ongoing CBT Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Case Outcome: Seventh and Eighth Interim Followup, Weeks 24 and 36 • Incorporating techniques to resolve anxiety into the patient’s ongoing

CBT would likely be most appropriate, prior to attempting to add a medication

• A letter was sent suggesting this to the CBT therapist, but after 12 weeks, this led to limited benefi t, and thus medication augmentation was considered

• Benzodiazepines, buspirone, and SSRIs/SNRIs can all be used to treat generalized anxiety disorder and are not contraindicated with stimulants

• After discussion of the options, paroxetine was prescribed to augment her stimulant and her CTB

Case Outcome: Ninth Interim Followup, Week 48 • After three months on OROS methylphenidate and paroxetine, while

continuing her CBT, at fi rst the patient stated that she “had her life back” • Then, after thinking back over the past year of treatment, and to how

she had been since childhood she stated, “No, I don’t have my life back – I fi nally have a life!”

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Case Debrief • It took a long time to get both the ADHD and GAD recognized • It took over a year of trial and error and combination treatment to

attain a remission of symptoms • Real remission will come when sustained improvement of symptoms

leads to better functional outcomes, not only less subjective distress, but now perhaps the chance for an education, a better job, and having enough emotional reserve to develop another relationship

• Stopping smoking might be a goal to tackle in the next year as well Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Take-Home Points • ADHD is highly heritable • It is not uncommon for adults with previously undiagnosed ADHD to

recognize their own symptoms once their child is diagnosed • A multigenerational approach should be considered for parents who

have ADHD and who care for children with ADHD • In the patient’s case, by addressing her own ADHD issues, she also

felt she could be a better parent to her daughter with ADHD

Performance in Practice: Confessions of a Psychopharmacologist • What could have been done better here?

– Perhaps ADHD could have been recognized earlier – Perhaps CBT could have been implemented earlier – Perhaps she should have been more actively engaged or have had

more serious discussions about smoking cessation already • Possible action item for improvement in practice

– Make a concerted effort to keep contact with low cost CBT resources in the community

– Make a more concerted effort to encourage smoking cessation

Tips and Pearls • Prescribing stimulants to an ADHD patient is very much like tailoring a

“bespoke” treatment, one case at a time • That is, some patients respond very differently to amphetamine than

they do to methylphenidate • Many patients respond very differently to one controlled dosage

pattern versus another • Look for comorbidities in adult ADHD, including both anxiety

disorders and substance dependence/abuse (especially smoking) • True remission means reduction not just in symptoms of ADHD, but

in the comorbid conditions as well

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PATIENT FILE

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Two-Minute Tute: A brief lesson and psychopharmacology tutorial (tute) with relevant background material for this case – ADHD rating scales for adults – Contributions of genetics to ADHD

Table 1: Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist Instructions

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162

PATIENT FILE

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163

PATIENT FILE

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Figure 1: Average Genetic Contribution of ADHD Based on Twin Studies

ADHD is one of the most genetically loaded medical or psychiatric conditions, higher than schizophrenia, asthma or breast cancer.

Posttest Self Assessment Question: Answer

Patients with comorbid ADHD and anxiety should in general not be prescribed stimulants Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

A True B False Answer: B

References 1. Franke B, Neale BM, and Faraone SV. Genome-wide association

studies in ADHD. Hum Genet 2009; 126(1): 13–50 2. Haberstick BC, Timberlake D, Hopfer CJ et al. Genetic and

environmental contributions to retrospectively reported DSM-IV childhood attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder. Psychol Med 2008; 38(7): 1057–66

3. McLoughlin G, Ronald A, Kuntsi J et al. Genetic support for the dual nature of attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder: substantial genetic overlap between the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive components. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2007; 35(6): 999–1008

4. Todd RD, Rasmussen ER, Neuman RJ et al. Familiality and heritability of subtypes of attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder in a population sample of adolescent female twins. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158(11): 1891–8

5. Faraone SV, Advances in the genetics and neurobiology of attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder, Biol Psychiatry 2006; 60: 1025–7

Twin studies: ADHD is genetic

Hudziak, 2000 Nadder, 1998

Levy, 1997 Sherman, 1997

Silberg, 1996 Gjone, 1996

Thapar, 1995 Schmitz, 1995

Edelbrock, 1992 Gillis, 1992

Goodman, 1989 Willerman, 1973

Breast cancer Asthma Schizophrenia Height

Average genetic contribution of ADHD based on twin studies

ADHD mean

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

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PATIENT FILE

165

6. Stahl SM, Stahl’s Illustrated Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009

7. Stahl SM, Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder and its Treatment, in Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology, 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008, pp 863–98

8. Stahl SM, Atomoxetine, in Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology The Prescriber’s Guide, 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009, pp 51–5

9. Stahl SM, d,l methylphenidate, in Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology The Prescriber’s Guide, 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009, pp 329–35

10. Stahl SM, Mixed Salts of d,l Amphetamine, in Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology The Prescriber’s Guide, 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009, pp 39–44

11. Stahl SM, Paroxetine, in Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology The Prescriber’s Guide, 3rd edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009, pp 409–15

Downloaded from http://stahlonline.cambridge.org by IP 192.168.60.239 on Wed Jul 26 03:25:23 BST 2017 Stahl Online © 2017 Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

 

Week 9 discussion

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14

Presentations of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD)

According to Stahl (2013) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increasingly being seen not just as a disorder of attention, nor just as a disorder of children. Paradigm shifts are altering the landscape for treatment options across the full range of ADHD symptoms, from inattention to impulsivity. ADHD is noted for a trio of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is currently hypothesized that all these symptoms arise in part from abnormalities in various circuits involving the prefrontal cortex. Specifically, the most prominent symptoms of inattention in ADHD, better known as executive dysfunction and as the inability to sustain attention and thus to solve problems, are hypothetically linked to inefficient information processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). DLPFC is activated by a cognitive task known as the n-back test, which can be monitored in living patients doing it while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanner.

 

Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter. 26-year-old woman has a daughter with ADHD, Psychiatrist noted symptoms in the mother and suggested she come in for her own evaluation.

Question: How often does ADHD run in the families? 

The Dilemma: When you see a child with ADHD, should you also evaluate the parents and siblings?

 

Question to ask my Patient/Diagnostic Interview

 

Belirgan, Ersoy and Ersoy (2018) explained that diagnosis of ADHD in adults involves determining the presence of ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood. The DIVA only asks about the core symptoms of ADHD required to make the DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, and does not ask about other co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, syndromes or disorders. However, comorbidity is commonly seen in both children and adults with ADHD, in around 75% of cases. For this reason, it is important to complete a general psychiatric assessment to enquire about commonly co-occurring symptoms, syndromes and disorders. The most common mental health problems that accompany ADHD include anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse disorders and addiction, sleep problems and personality disorders, and all these should be investigated. This is needed to understand the full range of symptoms experienced by the individual with ADHD; and also for the differential diagnosis, to exclude other major psychiatric disorders as the primary cause of ‘ADHD symptoms’ in adults. DIVA is a semi-structured diagnostic interview covering the childhood and adulthood DSM symptom list for ADHD, and providing examples of impairments commonly associated with the symptoms in five areas of everyday life for each age group: work and education; relationships and family life; social contacts; free time and hobbies; self-confidence and self-image. (Belirgan, Ersoy and Ersoy, 2018)

 

 

Gathering of Information

Feedback from people in the patient’s life is very important to further assess the patient’s situation. I will interview the Husband, siblings, the Mother and the Father if they are still alive. Her teachers. I will also interview her childhood close friends and her adult friends and any family member living in the same house with her. I will ask about her general behavior in school and at home, also her grades and gather other information that will help to further assess the patient condition. Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

Physical Exams and Diagnostic Test

Stahl (2013) further explained that ADHD diagnosis is made by a trained clinician after an extensive evaluation and physical examination rules out other possible causes for the symptoms, and a thorough series of interviews with the child, parents, spouse or teachers is conducted. ADHD experts include child psychiatrists, some pediatricians, a behavioral neurologist or possibly a clinical social worker trained to recognize ADHD. I will still recommend Physical exams, Laboratory test, Urine test, CT scan. A doctor can usually tell if a patient has ADHD by asking the patient specific questions and doing a physical exam.  I may, however, ask for lab tests to rule out other diagnoses, will likely do blood tests to check for medical conditions that may cause depressive symptoms. He or she will use the blood tests to check for such things as anemia as well as thyroid or possibly other hormones, and sometimes calcium and vitamin D levels. Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter 

 

Differential Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis helps to ensure that a working diagnosis is, in fact, the best diagnostic fit for your patient’s clinical presentation.

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)

APA (2013) explained that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive that are inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impact social and academic/occupational activities. ADHD is often associated with children, this disorder is diagnosed in clients across the lifespan. While many individuals are properly diagnosed and treated during childhood, some individuals who have ADHD only present with sub-syndromal evidence of the disorder. These individuals are often undiagnosed until they reach adulthood and struggle to cope with competing demands of running a household, caring for children, and maintaining employment. Based on just what the patient present at the clinic and what provider have been told so far about this patient’s history and symptoms, here is a case that indeed is ADHD, but her symptoms also suggest that she suffers from GAD- Constant worry – Feeling on edge – Fatigue – Difficulty concentrating and her mind going blank – Irritability – Trouble sleeping. Most adults with ADHD are comorbid for a second psychiatric disorder, and the most common is GAD. Also, this patient is a smoker which may be related to her ADHD since a disproportionate number of ADHD patients smoke, perhaps because of the therapeutic effects of nicotine on ADHD symptoms

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

According to APA (2013) Generalized Anxiety Disorder is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry lasting at least six months. Although the core symptoms of anxiety disorders (anxiety and worry) differ from the core symptoms of major depression (loss of interest and depressed mood), there is considerable overlap among the rest of the symptoms associated with these disorders (compare the “anxiety disorders” puzzle on the right to the “MDD” puzzle on the left). For example, fatigue, sleep difficulties, and problems concentrating are common to both types of disorders. These disorders all seem to maintain the core features of some form of anxiety or fear coupled with some form of worry, but their natural history over time shows them to morph from one into another, to evolve into full syndrome expression of anxiety disorder symptoms and then to recede into sub-syndromal levels of symptoms only to reappear again as the original anxiety disorder. (Stahl, 2013) Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

Major Depressive Disorder

APA (2013) further explained that Major Depressive Disorder is characterized by the absence of both Manic Episodes and Hypomanic Episodes. Episodes of depressed mood or diminished interest or pleasure that last at least 2 weeks and that are accompanied by characteristically associated symptoms such as changes in sleep, appetite, or activity level, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, suicidal ideation or behavior. Given that the presence of some manic or hypomanic symptoms (fewer symptoms or a shorter duration than required for mania or hypomania) may still be compatible with a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (and would warrant the use of the With Mixed Features specifier), it is important to ascertain whether the symptoms meet criteria for a Hypomanic Episode to determine whether it is more appropriate to make the diagnosis of Bipolar II Disorder. (Stahl, 2013)

 

Pharmacological Intervention/Dosage

It seems as though the primary disorder is ADHD and it will be simplest if this is treated first, with a single drug, probably a stimulant. An SSRI/SNRI and/or benzodiazepine can be added at a later time once the actions of the stimulant are evident. Even though patients with GAD alone or even normal controls may be “overstimulated” by a stimulant, in many cases of ADHD comorbid with GAD, the stimulant is paradoxically calming and well tolerated and even works for GAD symptoms as well as ADHD symptoms without having to prescribe a second medication for the GAD. Any stimulant could be chosen but not all are explicitly approved for treatment of ADHD in adults. (Stahl, 2013)

 

Methylphenidate.

The racemic form of methylphenidate includes both the d– and the l-isomers. d,l-Methylphenidate will lead to increased release of DA in the nucleus accumbens and NE and DA in the prefrontal cortex by blocking the reuptake pumps, DAT and NET. The same effects are caused by d-methylphenidate. Methylphenidate comes in many different formulations, such as regular and chewable immediate-release tablets, new and old sustained-release tablets, new sustained-release capsules, and oral solutions, as well as a transdermal patch. The transdermal formulation may not only confer lower abuse potential but may also enhance adherence. She was started on mixed salts d,l amphetamine XR (Adderall XR). She was referred to a local mental health training program where she could possibly get CBT for free or for a reduced rate from a trainee receiving supervision (Stahl, 2014b)

 

Amphetamine

Oral administration of clinically approved doses of the stimulant amphetamine, like methylphenidate, also blocks the transporters both for NE and DA (NET and DAT), but in a different manner, unlike methylphenidate and antidepressants, amphetamine is a competitive inhibitor and pseudosubstrate for NET and DAT, binding at the same site that the monoamines bind to the transporter, thus inhibiting NE and DA reuptake. At the doses of amphetamine used for the treatment of ADHD, the clinical differences in the actions of amphetamine versus methylphenidate can be relatively small. However, at the high doses of amphetamine used by stimulant addicts, additional pharmacologic actions of amphetamine are triggered. (Stahl, 2014b) Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

Atomoxetine

Stahl, (2014b) found that Atomoxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor or selective NRI. Sometimes called NET inhibitors, the selective NRIs have known antidepressant properties. In terms of their mechanism of therapeutic action in ADHD, since the prefrontal cortex lacks high concentrations of DAT, DA is inactivated in this part of the brain by NET. Thus, inhibiting NET increases both DA and NE in the prefrontal cortex. However, since there are few NE neurons and NETs in nucleus accumbens, inhibiting NET does not lead to an increase in either NE or DA there. For this reason, in ADHD patients with weak NE and DA signals in the prefrontal cortex, a selective NRI such as atomoxetine increases both NE and DA in the prefrontal cortex, enhancing tonic signaling of both, but increases neither NE nor DA in accumbens. Therefore, atomoxetine has no abuse potential. Atomoxetine is the only such agent approved for use in ADHD, but several other agents have NRI actions, including the approved (outside of the US) antidepressant and selective NRI reboxetine, and the various SNRIs, which not only have NRI actions but also serotonin reuptake inhibiting properties. (Stahl, 2013)

 

 

 

Follow-up Data at Week 4, 8, 12

According to Stahl (2013), the client had already been titrated to 20 mg of mixed salts of d,l – amphetamine XR. She thought that the medication had already started to help her and in fact that she would not have been able to cooperate with the CBT assignments had she not been on the medication. Because of the lack of side effects but continuing ADHD and GAD symptoms, the dose of d,l-amphetamine XR increased to 30 mg (off label since the maximum approved dosage for adults is 20 mg). Her BP and pulse were stable on the 30 mg dose but she felt jittery particularly in the morning and around noon; she also felt very anxious about her job situation and being able to provide for her family. Dose lowered to 25 mg, but the jitteriness persisted so the dosage was further lowered to 20 mg. The jitteriness abated but her ADHD symptoms were not well controlled on the 20 mg dose anymore. I will instruct to stay on 20 mg for two more weeks as she is going on vacation and not to change the dose until after her vacation and then retry the 25 mg dose again. The patient complained of feeling overwhelmed and irritable. For most patients, a week between dosing adjustments for a stimulant being used to treat ADHD is quite adequate. Weekly intervals give patients and clinicians a chance to see the way that the dosage is working through the spectrum of challenges that occur in a typical week. As vacations do not represent typical activities for a week, special consideration must be given to the effectiveness of medication changes that are done while a patient is on vacation – Many adults with ADHD may relax on vacation and not challenge themselves with cognitive loads and multitasking so may appear to be better even without a medication change – Other adults with ADHD, especially women with young children, may actually find vacation more challenging – For example, a parent with ADHD taking a family vacation with several children in tow may find the planning and organization for the trip more taxing than anything encountered at work or during the normal routine at home – It can also be difficult to manage timing the medication appropriately when traveling to different time zones. (Stahl, 2013) Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

Lisdexamfetamine

Hodgkins, Shaw, McCarthy and Sallee (2012) found that Lisdexamfetamine, d-methylphenidate XR, OROS methylphenidate, and atomoxetine are all FDA-approved for the treatment of adults with ADHD. On the one hand, the patient found her amphetamine-based stimulant to be very effective, and thus another long-acting stimulant would be reasonable. On the other hand, she had jitteriness with the stimulant, and thus a non-stimulant would be equally reasonable. After explaining the options, the patient elected to try another long-acting stimulant d-methylphenidate uses a bead-based technology similar to the mixed salts amphetamine XR in that 50 percent of the beads are immediate release and 50 percent delayed-released. Methylphenidate LA and d-methylphenidate XR employ the same patented SODAS technology in their delivery systems, but other long-acting forms of stimulants with beaded delivery systems vary due to proprietary differences in their manufacturing processes. For instance, one formulation of methylphenidate utilizes a capsule that contains a ratio of 30 percent immediate-release beads and 70 percent delayed-released beads. The medication within the delayed-release bead becomes bioavailable about four hours after the patient swallows the capsule. Lisdexamfetamine is the only stimulant preparation that is a prodrug: – In its prodrug form, a lysine molecule is attached to dextroamphetamine – Dextroamphetamine will not be active until the lysine is cleaved from it – Cleaved lysine is an amino acid that does not contribute to the clinical efficacy of this medication. Lisdexamfetamine could be a good choice for multiple reasons: – It uses a different delivery system that appears to have a more consistent interval to maximum concentration (Cmax). It is conceivable that the jitteriness this patient was experiencing was related more to the l-isomer than to the d-isomer. A non-stimulant such as atomoxetine may be particularly useful in a patient who has stimulant-related side effects, because atomoxetine does not cause these side effects. Also, atomoxetine may be particularly useful in patients with comorbid anxiety. (Hodgkins, Shaw, McCarthy & Sallee., 2012)

 

Nonpharmacological Interventions

Hodgkins, Shaw, McCarthy and Sallee (2012) further explained that behavior training has been found to be helpful, primarily for disruptive behaviors that frequently coincide with ADHD. Since ADHD may begin before school age, using the precedent of older children, increasing numbers of preschoolers are being identified and treated, sometimes with medications. However, the most commonly used psychostimulant, MPH, does not yet have government regulatory approval for use in children less than 6 years of age, while MAS has been granted approval by the FDA in the United States for children under 6 years, but older than 3 years of age. Recent reviews of treatments for preschoolers with ADHD emphasize the use of parenting interventions prior to medication based on general clinical consensus. (Stahl, 2013)

Reason for Selection

The Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), funded by the U.S. National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH), included parent behavior training (PBT) as the first phase for all children recruited into the study prior to randomization for the purpose of evaluating efficacy and safety of psychostimulant medication. While the few studies available suggest stimulant medications are effective for the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in very young children, psychostimulants also appear to cause more adverse events in preschool children than in older children. Due to scheduling issues, by the time the patient had her first CBT session, (Hodgkins, Shaw, McCarthy & Sallee., 2012)

 

Lessons Learned

According to Stahl (2013) it took a long time to get both the ADHD and GAD recognized. Real remission will come when sustained improvement of symptoms leads to better functional outcomes, not only less subjective distress, but now perhaps the chance for an education, a better job, and having enough emotional reserve to develop another relationship. ADHD is highly heritable. It is not uncommon for adults with previously undiagnosed ADHD to recognize their own symptoms once their child is diagnosed. A multigenerational approach should be considered for parents who have ADHD and who care for children with ADHD. In the patient’s case, by addressing her own ADHD issues, she also felt she could be a better parent to her daughter with ADHD Performance in Practice. Providers should make a concerted effort to keep contact with low cost CBT resources in the community and also encourage smoking cessation. Some patients respond very differently to amphetamine than they do to methylphenidate. Many patients respond very differently to one controlled dosage pattern versus another. Look for comorbidities in adult ADHD, including both anxiety disorders and substance dependence/abuse (especially smoking). True remission means reduction not just in symptoms of ADHD, but in the comorbid conditions as well. Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

References:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

 

Belirgan, S., Ersoy, M. A., & Ersoy, H. T. (2018). Prevalence of adult attention deficit

hyperactivity disorder and comorbid axis-I disorders among first time applied cases of a

general psychiatry outpatient clinic and a private psychotherapy centre. Klinik

Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni, 28(1), 25-35.

doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/24750573.2017.1384194

 

Hodgkins, P., Shaw, M., McCarthy, S., & Sallee, F. R. (2012). The pharmacology and clinical

outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: Does composition matter? CNS Drugs, 26(3),

245–268. doi:10.2165/11599630-000000000-00000

 

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical

applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

 

Stahl, S.M. (2014b). The prescriber’s guide (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press Presentations of ADHD – Case 2: Volume 1, Case #14: The scatter-brained mother whose daughter has ADHD, like mother, like daughter

 

 

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